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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
PRICE, JULIUS MENDES – English traveler, artist, and journalist; born in London about 1858; educated at University College (London), at Brussels, and at the School of Fine Arts in Paris. He was war correspondent to the "Illustrated London News" during...
PRIDEAUX, HUMPHREY – English Orientalist; born at Padstow, Cornwall, May 3, 1648; died at Norwich Nov. 1, 1724; educated at Christchurch, Oxford, where he became Hebrew lecturer in 1679. He wrote a life of Mohammed (London, 1697), which was mainly a...
PRINTERS' MARKS – Signets, coats of arms, or pictures printed, from engravings, at the end of a book or, later, on the title-page. Their use dates from soon after the invention of printing. The seals of the printers or the coats of arms of the...
PROFESSIONS (Statistics) – Until quite recent times the Jews were debarred from all professional occupations except that of medicine. Till entrance to the university was fully granted them, only a comparatively small number of Jews could enter the...
PURITY OF RACE – The question whether the Jews of to-day are in the main descended from the Jews of Bible times, and from them alone, is still undecided. No one denies that the Jews of Bible times were to a certain extent of mixed parentage, and...
PROPHETS AND PROPHECY – Biblical Data and Critical View: Though many ancient peoples had their prophets, the term has received its popular acceptation from Israel alone, because, taken as a class, the Hebrew prophets have been without parallel in human...
PROSELYTE – The "Ger." Term employed generally, though not exclusively, in the Septuagint as a rendering for the Hebrew word "ger," designating a convert from one religion to another. The original meaning of the Hebrew is involved in some...
PROVERBS – Wise, witty, and pithy maxims or aphorisms. Jewish proverbs are derived from the following sources: (1) Biblical collections, included in the canon; (2) Apocryphal collections, not included in the canon; (3) the Talmud; (4)...
PROVERBS – Wise, witty, and pithy maxims or aphorisms. Jewish proverbs are derived from the following sources: (1) Biblical collections, included in the canon; (2) Apocryphal collections, not included in the canon; (3) the Talmud; (4)...
PSALMOMANCY – The employment of the Psalms in incantations. The general use of the Bible for magic purposes has been discussed under Bibliomancy. Inasmuch as the employment of the Psalms is mentioned there, a brief summary, together with...
PSEUDONYMOUS LITERATURE AND WRITERS – The habit of adopting literary disguises is a very old one in Hebrew literature. According to the views of higher criticism, there are a large number of books of the Old Testament which might be included under the foregoing...
PUBLICAN – Local tax-farmer; the office existed among the Jews under the Roman dominion. The Romans were accustomed to farm out, generally for five years, the customs dues on exports. These taxes were mainly ad valorem, and therefore, as...
PYKE, LIONEL EDWARD – English barrister; born at Chatham April 21, 1854; died in Brighton March 26, 1899. He was the second son of Joseph Pyke, warden of the Central Synagogue, London, and was educated at Rochester Cathedral Grammar School and at...
QUEBEC – Capital of the province of Quebec; situated on the left bank of the River St. Lawrence. The first Jew known to have resided in Quebec was Abraham Jacob Franks, who settled there in 1767. His son David Salesby (or Salisbury)...
QUEENSLAND – British Australasian colony. When Queensland separated from the mother colony of New South Wales (1859) a few Jewish families from Sydney settled permanently in Brisbane. The names most prominent among these were those of...
RABBI – Rabban," "Rabbi," and "Rab." —The Title: Hebrew term used as a title for those who are distinguished for learning, who are the authoritative teachers of the Law, and who are the appointed spiritual heads of the community. It is...
RACES OF THE OLD TESTAMENT – The ancient Hebrews from time to time came in contact with peoples who were obviously of different speech, customs, or physique from their own. To these they learned to give names. A whole list of such names is contained in...
RABINOWITZ, ELIJAH DAVID BEN BENJAMIN – Russian rabbi; born at Pikeln, government of Kovno, June 11, 1845. He studied Talmud and rabbinics under his father (who was rabbi successively at Shilel, Rogova, and Vilkomir), and at the age of fifteen had acquired a...
RADNER, DAVID – Hebrew writer; born Feb. 22, 1848, at Wilna, Russia; died there Nov. 11, 1901. He translated into Hebrew Schiller's "William Tell" (1878) and "Don Carlos" (1879), Mosenthal's "Deborah" (1880), and Cassel's "Geschichte und...
RAFFALOVICH, ARTHUR – Russian economist; born at Odessa in 1853; a member of the well-known banking family of that name. He studied economics and diplomacy at Paris and Bonn, and became private secretary to Count Schuvalov in London (1876-79); at the...
RAHABI, DAVID – Indian calendar-maker; born in the state of Cochin about the middle of the eighteenth century. His father, Ezekiel Rahabi, was one of the wealthiest merchants there; and when he died (1771) David took over the management of his...
RA'IS – Until the time of Maḥmud II., the title of the presiding officer or head of a community in Egypt. Each Judæo-Egyptian community had its own ra'is, who was recognized by the calif and who exercised both spiritual and judicial...
TANNAIM AND AMORAIM – The Name. The name "tanna" is derived from the Aramaic "teni" or "tena" (="to teach"), and designates in general a teacher of the oral law, and in particular one of the sages of the Mishnah, those teachers of the oral law whose...
TANNAIM AND AMORAIM – The Name. The name "tanna" is derived from the Aramaic "teni" or "tena" (="to teach"), and designates in general a teacher of the oral law, and in particular one of the sages of the Mishnah, those teachers of the oral law whose...
TARNOPOL – Town of eastern Galicia, Austria; situated on the Sereth. It was founded in 1540 by the Polish hetman Johann Tarnowski. Polish Jews were at once admitted, and soon formed a majority of the population; during the sixteenth and...