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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
ROTHSCHILD – Celebrated family of financiers, the Fuggers of the nineteenth century, deriving its name from the sign of a red shield borne by the house No. 148 in the Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main. This house is mentioned in the...
ROTHSCHILD – Celebrated family of financiers, the Fuggers of the nineteenth century, deriving its name from the sign of a red shield borne by the house No. 148 in the Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main. This house is mentioned in the...
ROTHSCHILD – Celebrated family of financiers, the Fuggers of the nineteenth century, deriving its name from the sign of a red shield borne by the house No. 148 in the Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main. This house is mentioned in the...
ROTHSCHILD – Celebrated family of financiers, the Fuggers of the nineteenth century, deriving its name from the sign of a red shield borne by the house No. 148 in the Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main. This house is mentioned in the...
ROTHSCHILD – Celebrated family of financiers, the Fuggers of the nineteenth century, deriving its name from the sign of a red shield borne by the house No. 148 in the Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main. This house is mentioned in the...
ROTHSCHILD – Celebrated family of financiers, the Fuggers of the nineteenth century, deriving its name from the sign of a red shield borne by the house No. 148 in the Judengasse of Frankfort-on-the-Main. This house is mentioned in the...
RUMANIA – Invasion of the Chazars. Kingdom of southern Europe. If the assertions of Rumanian historians are to be accepted, Jews lived in Rumania for a considerable time before the advent of the hordes of Roman convicts brought by Emperor...
RUSSELL, HENRY – English composer and singer; born at Sheerness Dec. 24, 1812; died in London Dec. 7; 1900. He appeared in infancy in Christmas pantomimes, and later learned singing from Bellini in Italy in 1825, and counterpoint from Donizetti....
SAADIA (SA'ID) B. DAVID AL-ADENI – A man of culture living at Damascus and Safed between 1473 and 1485. He was the author of a commentary on some parts of Maimonides' Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, and copied the commentary of an Arabian writer on the first philosophical...
SABEANS – The inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Sheba in southeastern Arabia, known from the Bible, classical writers, and native inscriptions. The genealogies of Genesis give three pedigrees for Sheba, the eponymous ancestor of the...
SABBATH – The seventh day of the week; the day of rest.—Biblical Data: On the completion of His creative work God blessed and hallowed the seventh day as the Sabbath (Gen. ii. 1-3). The Decalogue in Exodus (xx. 8) reverts to this fact as...
SABBATH-SCHOOLS – Among the Jews the Sabbath-school or congregational religious school is a product of the nineteenth century. True, in past times every Jewish community of any size had its school for the teaching of the young; but this was a...
SABBATH AND SUNDAY – Early Christian Practise. A brief consideration is desirable as to why and when the keeping of the seventh day as the Sabbath ceased among Christian churches. That Jesus and his disciples kept the seventh day, and without vital...
SABBIONETTA) – Typography: From 1551 to 1559 the printer Tobias ben Eliezer Foa produced several Hebrew works beginning with Joseph Shaliṭ's "Merkabat ha-Mishnah." (1551) and finishing with an edition of the Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ of the ṭur (1559)....
SABINUS – 1. Roman procurator; treasurer of Augustus. After Varus had returned to Antioch, between Easter and Pentecost of the year 4 B.C., Sabinus arrived at Cæsarea, having been sent by Augustus to make an inventory of the estate left...
SACKCLOTH – Term originally denoting a coarsely woven fabric, usually made of goat's hair. It afterward came to mean also a garment made from such cloth, which was chiefly worn as a token of mourning by the Israelites. It was furthermore a...
SACRIFICE – The act of offering to a deity for the purpose of doing homage, winning favor, or securing pardon; that which is offered or consecrated. The late generic term for "sacrifice" in Hebrew is , the verb being , used in connection...
SACRILEGE – The act of profaning or violating sacred things. The prohibition of sacrilege was primarily in connection with the sanctuary (Lev. xix. 8, xxi. 23). The services in the Tabernacle or Temple could not be relegated to any one...
SA'D AL-DAULAH – Jewish physician and statesman; grand vizier from 1289 to 1291 under the Mongolian ruler in Persia, Argun Khan; assassinated March 5, 1291; son of Hibbat Allah b. Muḥasib of Ebher (Hammer-Purgstall, "Gesch. der Ilchane," i. 382)...
SAHAGUN (SANT FAGUND) – City in the old Spanish kingdom of Leon. On March 5, 1152, King Alfonso VII. granted to the thirty Jewish families living there the same privileges which the Jews in the city of Leon had received from Alfonso VI. (Becerro, "Ms....
SAINT AND SAINTLINESS – In Jewish tradition saintliness ("ḥasidut") is distinguished from holiness ("ḳedushah"), which is part of the Mosaic law. Saintliness is a divine and lofty type of piety, and a higher morality, not bound by law. Saintliness is...
SALOMONS – English family descended from Solomon Salomons, a London merchant on the Royal Exchange in the eighteenth century. The following are the principal members:Levi (Levy) Salomons: London financier and underwriter; born Jan. 16,...
SALOMONS – English family descended from Solomon Salomons, a London merchant on the Royal Exchange in the eighteenth century. The following are the principal members:Levi (Levy) Salomons: London financier and underwriter; born Jan. 16,...
SALAMAN, ANNETTE A. – English authoress; died April 10, 1879; youngest daughter of S. K. Salaman, and sister of the musician of that name. In her girlhood, during which she was for a time bedridden, she compiled the texts of Scripture illustrative of...
SALAMAN, CHARLES KENSINGTON – English pianist, composer, and controversialist; born in London March 3, 1814; died there June 23, 1901. His musical talent became apparent at a very early age, when he studied under Neate (a pupil of Beethoven), Crotch, and...