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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
SARGON – King of Assyria; died 705 B.C. He is mentioned in the Bible only in Isa. xx. 1; and his name is preserved by no classic writer. All modern knowledge of him dates, therefore, from the discovery of his palace at Khorsabad, twelve...
SARGON, MICHAEL – Indian convert to Christianity; born in Cochin 1795; died about 1855. He was converted in 1818 by T. Jarrett of Madras, and became the first missionary in India of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews. In...
SATYR – Rendering by the English versions of the Hebrew "se'irim" in Isa. xiii. 21, xxxiv. 14 (R. V., margin, "he-goats"; American R. V., "wild goats"), while in Lev. xvii. 7 and II Chron. xi. 15 the Authorized Version renders the word...
SAUL – Biblical Data: The first king of all Israel. He was the son of Kish, "a Benjamite, a mighty man of valor" (I Sam. ix. 1). For many years Israel had been ruled by judges, and had suffered many and severe sorrows at the hands of...
SAUL – Biblical Data: The first king of all Israel. He was the son of Kish, "a Benjamite, a mighty man of valor" (I Sam. ix. 1). For many years Israel had been ruled by judges, and had suffered many and severe sorrows at the hands of...
SAUL – Karaite leader; son and successor of Anan ben David; died about 780. He is styled by the later Karaites "nasi" (prince) and "rosh hagolah" (exilarch). Saul's activity was comparatively unimportant. He is mentioned by Solomon b....
SAULCY, LOUIS FÉLICIEN JOSEPH CAIGNART DE – Christian archeologist and numismatist; born at Lille March 19, 1807; died in Paris Nov. 5, 1880. He first adopted a military career, and in this way became custos of the Museum of Artillery, Paris, in 1842. He then made a...
SAVOY – A Refuge from France. Ancient independent duchy; part of the kingdom of Sardinia from 1720; ceded to France in 1860; and now (1905) forming the departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie. When in 1182 the Jews were expelled from...
SAX, JULIUS – Electrical engineer; born at Sugarre, Russia, 1824; died in London Aug., 1890. He emigrated to England in 1851, and started a business for the manufacture of scientific instruments, being employed by the master of the royal mint...
SAXON DUCHIES – The four Saxon duchies are those of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Weimar.Saxe-Altenburg: Duchy in Thuringia; an independent division of the German empire. It has a total population of 194,914, of...
SAYCE, ARCHIBALD HENRY – English archeologist; born at Shirehampton Sept. 25, 1846; educated at Grosvenor College, Bath, and Queen's College, Oxford, becoming fellow in the latter in 1869 and tutor in 1870. He was deputy professor of comparative...
SEAL – Biblical References. Breastplates for Scrolls of the Law.1. In the Great Synagogue, Aldgate, London.2. Designed by Leo Horvitz.3. In the Musée de Cluny, Paris.4. In the possession of Maurice Herrmann, New York.An instrument or...
SCHIFF – Family of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. The earliest known member, Jacob Kohen Ẓedeḳ Schiff, who is mentioned on the tombstone of his son, Uri Phoebus, as having discharged the function of dayyan at Frankfort-on-the-Main, must...
SCHIFF – Family of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. The earliest known member, Jacob Kohen Ẓedeḳ Schiff, who is mentioned on the tombstone of his son, Uri Phoebus, as having discharged the function of dayyan at Frankfort-on-the-Main, must...
SCHIFF – Family of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. The earliest known member, Jacob Kohen Ẓedeḳ Schiff, who is mentioned on the tombstone of his son, Uri Phoebus, as having discharged the function of dayyan at Frankfort-on-the-Main, must...
SCHIFF – Family of Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. The earliest known member, Jacob Kohen Ẓedeḳ Schiff, who is mentioned on the tombstone of his son, Uri Phoebus, as having discharged the function of dayyan at Frankfort-on-the-Main, must...
SCHILLER-SZINESSY, SOLOMON MAYER – Reader in rabbinic at Cambridge University; born at Alt-Ofen, Hungary, 1820; died at Cambridge March 11, 1890. After a distinguished academic career he graduated as doctor of philosophy from the University of Jena, being...
SCHLEMIHL – Popular Yiddish term for an unfortunate person. It occurs also in the form Schlimmilius ("Jüdische Volksbibliothek," vii. 80). According to Heine ("Jehuda-ben-Halevy"), it is derived from the Bible name "Shelumiel," owing to the...
SCHMID, ANTON VON – Christian publisher of Hebrew books; born at Zwettl, Lower Austria, Jan. 23, 1765; died at Vienna June 27, 1855. His father, an employee of the convent, destined him for the clerical career, and with this view Anton received a...
SCHNORRER – Judæo-German term of reproach for a Jewish beggar having some pretensions to respectability. In contrast to the ordinary house-to-house beggar, whose business is known and easily recognized, the schnorrer assumes a gentlemanly...
SCHNURMANN, NESTOR IVAN – English educationist; born 1854 in Russia. He went to England about 1880, and began his career as a teacher of Russian and kindred languages to army officers, becoming examiner in Bulgarian to the civil service commissioners. He...
SCHOMBERG, SIR ALEXANDER – British naval officer; born 1716; died in Dublin March 19, 1804; younger son of Meyer Löw Schomberg. He entered the navy in Nov., 1743. In 1747 he was promoted lieutenant of the "Hornet"; in 1755 he was appointed to the...
SCHOMBERG, ISAAC – English physician; born at Cologne Aug. 14, 1714; died in London May 4, 1780; son of Meyer Löw Schomberg. He received a liberal education, and pursued his medicalstudies at Ledyen, where he took the degree of M.D. Returning to...
SCHOMBERG, MEYER LÖW – English physician; born at Fetzburg, Germany, 1690; died in London March 4, 1761. He was the eldest son of a Jewish practitioner of medicine whose original name was Löw, which he changed to Schomberg. Schomberg obtained the...
SCHOMBERG, RALPH (RAPHAEL) – English physician and author; born at Cologne, Germany, Aug. 14, 1714; died at Reading, England, June 29, 1792; twin brother of Isaac Schomberg. He was educated at Merchant Taylor's School, and studied medicine at Rotterdam,...