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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
SCHÖNERER, GEORG VON – Austrian politician and anti-Semitic agitator; born at Vienna July 17, 1842. He devoted himself to agriculture, and in 1873 entered the Austrian Diet, where he represented the German-National party and gave his support to the...
SEBAG, SOLOMON – English teacher and Hebrew writer; born in 1828; died at London April 30, 1892; son of Rabbi Isaac Sebag. He was educated in the orphan school of the Portuguese congregation, London, subsequently becoming master of the Sha'are...
SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB – German polyhistor and Orientalist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Jan. 14, 1664; died there Feb. 14, 1722. He studied theology at Wittenberg, and went to Hamburg in 1684 to study Orientalia under Ezra Edzardi. He then settled in...
SCHUL – Judæo-German designation for the temple or the synagogue ("bet ha-midrash"), used as early as the thirteenth century. The building of synagogues being forbidden in nearly every European country at that period, the Jews were...
SCHÜLER GELAUF – Organized attacks upon the Jews of different Polish cities by Christian youths, especially pupils of the many Jesuit schools that existed in Poland during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These youths not only assaulted...
SCHULTENS, ALBERT – Dutch Orientalist; born at Gröningen Aug. 23, 1686; died Jan. 26, 1756. He studied Arabic at Leyden under Van Til, and at Utrecht under Reland. He took his degree (Doctor of Theology) at Gröningen in 1709; became teacher of...
SELEUCIDÆ – Powerful Syrian dynasty, which exercised an influence on the history of the Jews for two centuries (312-112 B.C.).Seleucus I., Nicator ("the victorious"): Founder of the line; born about 357; died about 280. He was one of the...
SCHUSTER, ARTHUR – English physicist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 12, 1851. He was educated at Frankfort, at Owens College, Manchester, and at the University of Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1873). He early took an interest in physics, especially in...
SCHUTZJUDE – Jew under the special protection of the head of the state. In the early days of travel and commerce the Jews, like other aliens, used to apply to the ruling monarchs for letters of protection, and they obtained "commendation"...
SCHWABACH, JULIUS LEOPOLD – British consul-general in Berlin; born in Breslau 1831; died there Feb. 23, 1898. At the age of sixteen he entered the banking-house of Bleichröder, and twenty years later became a partner; from 1893, when Baron Gerson von...
SCHWARZ, PETER – German Dominican preacher and anti-Jewish writer of the fifteenth century. According to John Eck ("Verlegung cines Juden-Büchleins," signature H, i.b), Schwarz was a Jewish convert to Christianity; but for this assertion there...
SCOTT, CHARLES ALEXANDER (KARL BLUMENTHAL) – English author; born in London 1803; died at Venice Nov., 1866. At an early age he went to Italy, where he remained for a considerable time. He was master of several languages, and traveled extensively. In 1848 he joined in the...
SCHWEINFURT – Town in Lower Franconia. The first mention of its Jews dates from the year 1243, when Henry of Bamberg ordered 50 marks in silver to be paid them. In 1263 the murder of a seven-year-old Christian girl was attributed to the Jews,...
SCORPION – An arachnid resembling a miniature flat lobster, and having a poisonous sting in its tail. It is common in the Sinaitic Peninsula and the desert of El-Tih. In Palestine, where it is represented by eight species, it swarms in...
SCOTLAND – Country forming the northern part of Great Britain. Jews have been settled there only since the early part of the nineteenth century. In 1816 there were twenty families in Edinburgh, which was the first Scottish city to attract...
SCROLL OF THE LAW – Every One to Possess a Sefer Torah. The Pentateuch, written on a scroll of parchment. The Rabbis count among the mandatory precepts incumbent upon every Israelite the obligation to write a copy of the Pentateuch for his personal...
SCYTHIANS – A nomadic people which was known in ancient times as occupying territory north of the Black Sea and east of the Carpathian Mountains. Herodotus relates how they swept down over Media and across to the shores of the...
SEA-MEW – For Biblical data see Cuckoo. In the Talmud (Ḥul. 62b) is mentioned an unclean bird under the name , and (ib. 102b) under , explained by Rashi as "a very lean bird." Some would connect these words with the Latin "prava" (bad)...
SELIGMAN – American Jewish family having its origin in Baiersdorf, Bavaria. The eight sons of David Seligman have formed merchantile establishments spread throughout the chief commercial centers of the United States. The eldest, Joseph,...
SEGELMESSI (SIJILMISSI), JUDAH BEN JOSEPH – African liturgist; flourished about 1400; a native of Segelmesa, Morocco. Two seliḥot of his are extant, one beginning "Eleh kokebe marom," and the other, "Mah e'eseh le-ẓedati," both of which bear the signature "Judah b. Joseph...
SEGRE – Italian family of scholars.Abraham ben Judah Segre (known as Rab ASI): Rabbi in Casale in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was on terms of intimate friendship with Judah Finzi of Mantua and with Benjamin Kohn of...
SEIR – 1. Region that took its name from Seir the Horite, whose descendants occupied it, followed by Edom and his descendants. The earliest reference to the name is found in the Harris Egyptian papyrus, in which Rameses III. says (c....
SELDEN, JOHN – English jurist and Orientalist; born Dec. 16, 1584, at Salvington, Sussex; died at Whitefriars, London, Nov. 30, 1654. He was educated at Oxford, and was admitted to the Inner Temple June 14, 1612. He had the use of the valuable...
SELEUCIA – 1. Greek colony founded about the end of the third century B.C. on Lake Merom. According to the inference of Grätz, based on the scholium to Meg. Ta'an., the remnant of the Pharisees spared by Alexander Jannæus found a refuge...
SELIGSOHN, SAMUEL – Hebrew poet; born at Samoczin, Posen, 1815; died there Oct. 3, 1866. He published "Ha-Abib" (Berlin, 1845), an epos. Another epos, on the destruction of Jerusalem, and various essays by him remained in manuscript.Bibliography:...