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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
SHURRABI, SHELOMO SALEM – akam of the Beni-Israel community of Bombay; born at Cochin at the end of the eighteenth century; died at Bombay April 17, 1856. While on a voyage from Cochin to Bombay with his maternal grandfather, Meyer Serfadi, about 1836,...
SHUSHAN (SUSA) PURIM – Name given to the day which follows Purim—i.e., to the 15th of Adar, on which day, according to the Book of Esther (ix. 18), the Purim festival is held in Shushan. As a matter of fact, the 15th of Adar is Purim day not only at...
SHYLOCK – Character in Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice." Shylock is represented as making a wager with Antonio, a merchant of Venice, setting the return of a loan of 3,000 ducats against a pound of flesh to be forfeited by...
SIBERIA – Russian territory in northern Asia, extending from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, and from the Arctic Sea to the Chinese frontier, with a total population (1902) of 6,276,226, including 31,380 Jews. As a place of...
SICILY – Large island in the Mediterranean Sea, southwest of Italy, to which it belongs and from which it is separated by the Strait of Messina. The earliest trace of Jews in Sicily dates from the end of the sixth century, when, at the...
SIDRA – Term, the original meaning of which is "order" or "arrangement," frequently used in both Talmuds to denote a section of the Bible read either in the synagogue or in the school. In the statement "Rab read a sidra before Rabbi"...
SIḤIN – Large and populous city in the territory of the tribe of Zebulon, near Sepphoris. After the destruction of Jerusalem it lost its importance, and was thenceforth called merely Kefar Siḥin. Josephus refers once ("B. J." ii. 20, §...
SILESIA – Province of Prussia, formerly of Austria. Unreliable accounts date the first settlement of Jews in Silesia as early as the eleventh century, when, it is said, a synagogue in Altendorf, near Ratibor, was transformed into a church...
SIMFEROPOL – Capital of the government of Taurida, Russia, a city on the Salghir river, near Sebastopol. In the beginning of the nineteenth century it had a considerable Jewish community, and at present Jews constitute one-fourth of a total...
SIMḤAH OF ROME – Scholar and rabbi of the Roman community in the last quarter of the thirteenth century. He was given an open letter by the community and sent out to find Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah and bring it back with him. He...
SIMMONS, LAURENCE MARK – English rabbi; born in London 1852; died at Manchester April 5, 1900. He was educated at the City of London School, proceeding in 1873 to the Rabbinical Seminary at Breslau to complete his studies. He held the degrees of B.A....
TYPOGRAPHY – The art of printing. The invention of printing was welcomed by the Jews as "the art of writing with many pens." From the time of the earlier printers reference is made to their craft as "holy work" ("'Abodat ha-Ḳodesh"). It may...
TYPOGRAPHY – The art of printing. The invention of printing was welcomed by the Jews as "the art of writing with many pens." From the time of the earlier printers reference is made to their craft as "holy work" ("'Abodat ha-Ḳodesh"). It may...
TYPOGRAPHY – The art of printing. The invention of printing was welcomed by the Jews as "the art of writing with many pens." From the time of the earlier printers reference is made to their craft as "holy work" ("'Abodat ha-Ḳodesh"). It may...
SIMON, SIR JOHN – English sergeant at law and politician; born in Jamaica Dec. 9, 1818; died in London June 24, 1897. He was descended on the maternal side from the Orobios (see Castro family). In 1833 he was sent to England to continue his...
SIMON, LADY RACHEL – English authoress; born in London Aug. 1, 1823; died there July 7, 1899; daughter of Simeon K. Salaman and Alice Cowen. She grew up amid the intellectual and refined surroundings of a home which was the rendezvousof many...
SIMON, RICHARD – French scholar and Orientalist; born at Dieppe May 13, 1638; died there April 21, 1721. After studying at the Sorbonne he joined the Congregation of the Oratory, in the library of which he studied Oriental works and manuscripts....
SIMON (SIMEDL, SIMONCINO) OF TRENT – Child victim of an alleged ritual murder by the Jews of Trent. He was the son of Andreas Unverdosben, a cobbler, or tanner, in Trent, and was born Nov. 26, 1472.The Disappearance of Simon. The harmonious relations between the...
SIMONIAS – A city in Galilee, about two hours southwest of Sepphoris. In the Talmud (Yer. Meg. 70a) it is identified with the Shimron of Josh. xi. 1, xii. 20, xix. 15, a name which had already been replaced in all passages of the...
SINGER, SIMEON – English rabbi; born in London 1848. He was educated at Jews' College, received his rabbinical diploma in 1890, and has occupied successively the positions of head master of Jews' College School, and minister of the Borough New...
SIN – Under the Jewish theocracy, wilful disregard of the positive, or wilful infraction of the negative, commands of God as proclaimed by Moses and interpreted by the Rabbis; it thus includes crimes against God and crimes against...
SIN-OFFERING – Biblical Data: The sin-offering proper is a sacrifice consisting of either a beast or a fowl and offered on the altar to atone for a sin committed unwittingly. The rules concerning the sin-offering are as follows: If the...
SINAI, MOUNT – Mount Horeb. —Biblical Data: Mountain situated in the desert of Sinai, famous for its connection with the promulgation of the Law by God through Moses (Ex. xix. 1-xx. 18). The general opinion of modern scholars is that the name...
SINAI, MOUNT – Mount Horeb. —Biblical Data: Mountain situated in the desert of Sinai, famous for its connection with the promulgation of the Law by God through Moses (Ex. xix. 1-xx. 18). The general opinion of modern scholars is that the name...
SINAITIC COMMANDMENTS – Halakot designated in the Mishnah and the Talmudim as "halakot le-Mosheh mi-Sinai," i.e., as having been transmitted from Moses on Mt. Sinai. There are, however, many halakot so designated which did not originate with Moses and...