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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
STEINFELD, EMANUEL – Australian statesman; born at Neisse, Silesia, in 1827; died at Melbourne May 6, 1893. He attended the College of Brieg, and after residing in London (1847-53) went to Ballarat, Australia, where he established (1866) the firm of...
STEPHEN – Hellenist Jewish convert to Christianity who, according to tradition, was martyred at Jerusalem Dec. 26, in the year 29 C.E. Epiphanius ("Hæres." xx. 4) records him as one of the seventy chosen disciples of Jesus. That he was a...
STERN, DAVID, VISCOUNT DE – English banker; born in Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in London Jan. 19, 1877. He was a member of a prominent family descendants of which established banking-houses in different European capitals. The title of viscount was...
STERN, HENRY ABRAHAM – Christian missionary; born at Unterreichenbach, Hesse-Cassel, April 11, 1820; died in London May 13, 1885. He obtained his early education in Frankfort-on-the-Main, and at the age of seventeen entered a commercial house in...
STERN, HERMANN, BARON DE – English financier; born in Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1815; died in London Oct. 20, 1887. Together with his brother David de Stern he settled in London in 1844, where the brothers founded the firm of Stern Brothers, which soon won...
STERNER, ALBERT EDWARD – English artist; born in London March 8, 1863. He studied at Julien's Académie and the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, and in 1881 emigrated to the United States. From 1881 to 1885 he lived in Chicago, occupying himself with...
STOBBE, JOHANN ERNST OTTO – Christian historian of the Jews; born at Königsberg, East Prussia, June 28, 1831; died at Leipsic May 19, 1887. He studied philology and history, and later jurisprudence, at the university of his native town, graduating as LL.D....
STRAUS – American family, originally from Otterberg, in the Rhenish Palatinate. The earliest member known was one Lazarus, born in the first half of the eighteenth century, whose son Jacob Lazarus was known also as Jacques Lazare....
SUASSO – Spanish family, with branches in Holland and England. The following are the more important members (in chronological order):Antonio (Isaac) Lopez Suasso: Resident of The Hague. For services rendered to King Charles II. of Spain,...
STRAUSS, GUSTAVE LOUIS MAURICE – British author; born at Trois-Rivières, Canada, 1807; died at Teddington, England, Sept. 2, 1887; educated at Linden, Hanover, Berlin (Ph.D.), and at the Montpellier School of Medicine. In 1832 he visited England for the first...
STRAUSS, JOSEPH – English rabbi; born in Germany 1848; educated at the Royal Gymnasium at Stuttgart, and at the universities of Würzburg and Tübingen (Ph. D. 1873). He also pursued the study of theology, and, after having passed the state...
STRELISKER, MORDECAI BEN DAVID – Cantor in the synagogue of Mihăilenĭ in Rumania; born in Brody, Galicia, 1809; died Sept., 1875. He spent his youth in his native town, where he acquired a knowledge of Hebrew literature under the instruction of Erter and...
STROUSBERG, BETHEL HENRY (BARUCH HIRSCH) – German railway contractor; born at Neidenburg, East Prussia, Nov. 20, 1823; died at Berlin June 1, 1884. After an unsuccessful business career in London he emigrated to America, and for some time taught languages at New Orleans....
SUICIDE – Self-murder. The influence of race on the frequency of suicide is evident from statistics giving the rates of mortality from this cause in various countries. Of the European peoples, the Germans, Scandinavians, English, etc.,...
SULLAM, SARA COPIA (COPPIO) – Italian poetess; born in Venice 1592; died there Adar 5 (Feb. 14); 1641; eldest daughter of Simon and Rebecca Coppio. Her father was a man of culture, who enjoyed the respect of the community in which he dwelt. At his death,...
SULZBERGER – American family which derived its name from the town of its origin, Sulzbürg, near Ratisbon, in the Bavarian Palatinate. The first known member of the family is Eliezer Sussmann Sulzberger, born about the beginning of the...
SUN – Early Conceptions of It. —Biblical Data: The conceptions of the Hebrews with regard to physical phenomena were those that obtained among their neighbors, the sun being considered as a torch or light ("ma'or") suspended in the...
SUPERSTITION – Biblical Data: That views and practises borrowed from paganism and not in accord with the monotheistic belief of Israel—as, for instance, witchcraft and sorcery—existed in Bible times is proved by the fact that they are...
SUPERSTITION – Biblical Data: That views and practises borrowed from paganism and not in accord with the monotheistic belief of Israel—as, for instance, witchcraft and sorcery—existed in Bible times is proved by the fact that they are...
SÜSSKIND, ALEXANDER B. SOLOMON WIMPFEN – Wealthy citizen of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and a resident of Worms in the second half of the thirteenth century; died on the Day of Atonement, 1307. He spent almost his entire fortune in ransoming the body of Meïr of Rothenburg,...
SUSSMANN, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH – Shoḥeṭ in London in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote a commentary on Yoreh De'ah in four parts, which were entitled respectively "Sifte Zahab," "Adne Zahab," "Lebushe Tebu'ah," and "Lebushe Serad." He also...
SUTRO, ALFRED – English author and dramatist; born in London about 1870; educated at the City of London School and in Brussels. He began his career with a series of translations of Maeterlinck's works, all of which except the dramas he has...
SWAYING THE BODY – The habit of swaying the body during study and prayer has been peculiar to the Jews from very early times, and it is one still practised by them in the Orient and eastern Europe. In the Zohar, R. Jose asks R. Abba: "Why is it...
SWEDEN – Kingdom of northern Europe. The existence of Jews in Sweden in the seventeenth century is vouched for by church records at Stockholm, from which it appears that several Jews had joined the Lutheran Church, a condition at that...
SYNOD – Origin of Synods. Representative council, composed of rabbis and laymen, and convened to deliberate upon and determine points of Jewish doctrine, policy, and practise. The "elders" in the time of Moses and the members of the...