JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
TORDESILLAS – Spanish city near Valladolid, with a Jewish community, which was visited by Vicente Ferrer toward the end of 1411 for propagandic purposes. He advised the Jews of the city to change their abode for the narrow ghetto of...
TORDESILLAS, MOSES HA-KOHEN DE – Spanish controversialist, who was called upon to suffer for his faith, an attempt being made to convert him to Christianity by force. Despite cruel persecution, he remained true to his convictions, although he was robbed of all...
TOURO, JUDAH – American philanthropist; born at Newport, R. I., June 16, 1775; died at New Orleans, La., Jan. 13, 1854; son of Rev. Isaac Touro and Reyna Hays. His father was of Portuguese origin and had settled in Jamaica, but went to Newport...
TOSAFOT – Meaning of Name. Critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud, printed, in almost all editions, on the outer margin and opposite Rashi's notes. The authors of the Tosafot are known as Tosafists ("ba'ale ha-tosafot"). For what...
TÖTBRIEF – Term applied in Germany to the edicts issued by the kings and emperors, to the papal bulls, and to the edicts of various ecclesiastical authorities, by which the Christians were exempted from paying their debts to Jews. The...
TOTEMISM – A primitive social system in which members of a clan reckoned kinship through their mothers, and worshiped some animal or plant which they regarded as their ancestor and the image of which they bore tattooed on their persons. It...
TOY, CRAWFORD HOWELL – American Christian Orientalist; born at Norfolk, Va., March 23, 1836. He was educated at the University of Virginia, and studied Orientalia at the University of Berlin (1866-68). On his return from Europe he was appointed...
TRADE-UNIONISM – In Diamond and Cigar Trades. —In England: Excepting in Holland, the creation of a Jewish proletariat has everywhere followed immigration from the east-European centers, where the massing of population gradually led to the...
TRANSLATIONS – Into Hebrew: After the early victories of the Mohammedans and the consequent spread of Arabic civilization, the Jews of the Eastern countries became familiar with and adopted to a large extent the Arabic language; so much so...
TRAVELERS – Jews early became accustomed to wandering, either by compulsion, as in the Exile and in the Diaspora, or through natural dispersion. The spreading out of the Jewish race in the first and second centuries indicated a willingness...
TRAVNIK – Town of Bosnia. The first Jews settled there at the beginning of the nineteenth century, during the reign of the sultan 'Abd al-Majid, most of them being Sephardim from Sarajevo. The first to come were the army purveyor Abraham...
TREASON – Biblical Data: In the strictest sense there is no record in the Bible of an attempt to betray one's country, nor is there any mention of an unsuccessful attempt at regicide, which is high treason; but there are numerous...
TREBINO (TREMINO) DE SOBREMONTE, TOMAS – Martyr; burned at the stake at Mexico, or Lima, April 11, 1649. He had previously been reconciled by the Inquisition; but in 1642, during the trial of Gabriel de Granada, information was brought against him and his wife, Maria...
TREMELLIUS, JOHN IMMANUEL – Italian Hebraist; born at Ferrara 1510; died at Sedan Oct. 9, 1580. He was educated at the University of Padua. He was converted about 1540 to the Catholic faith through Cardinal Pole, but embraced Protestantism in the following...
TRENT – Oldest city of the Tyrol; a sovereign bishopric from 1027 to 1803. During the first half of the fourteenth century a small number of Jews, probably from Italy, settled in the episcopal city. During the first decades their...
TRIBES, LOST TEN – According to the Bible, Tiglath-pileser (II Kings xv. 29) or Shalmaneser (ib. xvii. 6, xviii. 11), after the defeat of Israel, transported the majority of the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria, and placed them in...
TRIENNIAL CYCLE – A cycle of three years, in the course of which the whole Law is read on Sabbaths and festivals. This was the practise in Palestine, whereas in Babylonia the entire Pentateuch was read in the synagogue in the course of a single...
TRISTRAM, HENRY BAKER – English clergyman, Biblical scholar, and traveler in Palestine; born May 11, 1822, at Eglingham, Northumberland. He was educated at Durham School and Oxford University, and took orders in 1845; but sickness compelled him to live...
TROKI – Karaite family deriving its name from the city of Troki, in the government of Wilna, Russia. The more important members of the family are:Abraham ben Aaron Ḥazzan Troki: Karaite liturgical poet; lived at Troki in the sixteenth...
TROP – Judæo-German term for tropes, the short musical cadences, called "distinctions" in theChurch plain-song, which are the traditional vocal interpretation of the accents in the Cantillation of the Hebrew Scriptures. See also...
TROY, N. Y. – City and the capital of Rensselaer county in the state of New York; situated on the east bank of the Hudson River six miles above Albany. Although it was settled in 1787, no authentic record is found of a Jewish inhabitant until...
TRUMBULL, HENRY CLAY – American Christian Orientalist; born at Stonington, Conn., June 8, 1830; died at Philadelphia Dec. 8, 1903. He was educated at Williston Seminary, Mass., and took up Sunday-school work, becoming in 1858 state missionary of the...
TUCHMANN, JULES – French folklorist; born in Paris March 23, 1830; died there Feb. 28, 1901. Privately educated, he devoted his whole life to investigating the traces of supernaturalism in traditional beliefs. The results of some of his...
TUNIS – In Roman Times. Formerly one of the Barbary States of North Africa, but since 1881 a dependency of France; situated between latitude 31° and 37° north, and longitude 8° and 11° east, and bounded north and northeast by the...
TURKEY – Empire of southeastern Europe and western Asia. For present purposes Turkey is taken to mean that part of Europe which is directly under Ottoman rule, Asia Minor, the islands of the Archipelago, and Mesopotamia. Syria and...