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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
TYCHSEN, OLAUS GERHARD – Christian Hebraist and Orientalist; born at Tondern in Sleswick, Denmark, Dec. 14, 1734; died at Rostock, Germany, Dec. 30, 1815. He studied rabbinics at the University of Halle, and journeyed through Germany and Denmark in the...
TYPES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL – Correlated norms of racial qualities. Individuals who present an interrelation between the color of the hair and that of the eyes are considered typical representatives of their race. In the blond races fair hair is generally...
TYPES, ANTHROPOLOGICAL – Correlated norms of racial qualities. Individuals who present an interrelation between the color of the hair and that of the eyes are considered typical representatives of their race. In the blond races fair hair is generally...
UGOLINO, BLAISIO – Italian polyhistor; born at Venice about 1700. He is stated to have been a Jewish convert, and was certainly well acquainted with Talmudic literature. He is known for the huge collection of treatises on Jewish
UNION OF AMERICAN HEBREW CONGREGATIONS, THE – Association of American Jewish congregations composed chiefly of the Reform element, and established largely through the persistent efforts, extending for a period of over twenty years, of Isaac M. Wise. The initiative was taken...
UNION OF JEWISH LITERARY SOCIETIES – An association of societies founded in 1902 in London, England, for the diffusion of Jewish literature, history, and sociology, and for the coordination of the work of Jewish literary societies. The organization grew out of a...
UNITED STATES – A federal republic of North America. The history and condition of the Jews in this territory—apart from Russia and Austria the largest concourse of Israelites under one government in the world—is treated, for convenience, under...
UNITED SYNAGOGUE – A body composed of sixteen synagogues in London, England, constituted in 1870 by Act of Parliament (33 and 34 Victoria, cap. 116). Originally the "city" synagogues, as the Jewish places of worship within the borders of the city...
UNIVERSITIES – Places of higher and liberal learning, so called from the Latin word "universitas," signifying an association or a corporation. There are traditions of the connection of Jews with the medieval universities of Salerno and...
VATICAN LIBRARY – Papal library; originally housed, with its archives, in the Lateran Palace, where it was enriched, in the course of time, by many rare manuscripts. Transferred to the Torre Chartularia on the Palatine, it was taken to Avignon;...
URI PHOEBUS BEN AARON HA-LEVI – Dutch printer; born at Amsterdam 1623; died there Jan. 27, 1715 (not at Zolkiev in 1713, as Steinschneider records); son of Aaron ha-Levi, ḥazzan at the Neweh Shalom Synagogue, Amsterdam, and grandson of Moses Uri ha-Levi,...
USURY – In modern language this term denotes a rate of interest greater than that which the law or public opinion permits; but the Biblical law, in all dealings among Israelites, forbids all "increase" of the debt by reason of lapse of...
VALLENTINE, ISAAC – English journalist and communal worker; born in Belgium 1793; died in London 1868; son of the Rev. N. I. Vallentine. He founded the earliest Anglo-Jewish periodical, which at first was unsuccessful, but which afterward gave rise...
VAN OVEN, ABRAHAM – Physician; died in England 1778; grandson of Samuel Basan, who, fleeing from Spain at the beginning of the eighteenth century, settled in Oven, Holland, whence the patronymic was derived. Abraham Van Oven received his medical...
VAN OVEN, BARNARD – English physician and communal worker; born in London 1796; died there July 9, 1860; youngest son of Joshua Van Oven. He was brought up for the medical profession, studying under Sir William Blizard and receiving the degree of...
VAN OVEN, JOSHUA – English surgeon and communal worker; born in England 1766; died in Liverpool 1838; son of Abraham Van Oven. He was trained for the medical profession, being a pupil of Sir William Blizard. On receiving the degree of L.R.C.S....
VAN PRAAGH, WILLIAM – Pioneer of lipreading for deaf-mutes in England; born in Rotterdam June 11, 1845. Having studied under Dr. Hirsch, who had introduced into Holland from Germany the purely oral system of teaching the deaf and dumb, and who became...
VAN STRAALEN, SAMUEL – English Hebraist and librarian; born at Gouda, Holland, 1845; died in London, England, 1902. In 1873 he was appointed Hebrew librarian at the British Museum. He translated many Dutch, German, and Hebrew books, and was the author...
VARUS, QUINTILIUS – Roman governor of Syria 6-4 B.C.; successor of Saturninus. He first became prominent in Jewish history when Herod the Great placed his own son Antipater on trial before the tribunal over which Varus presided, and which condemned...
VECINHO (VIZINO), JOSEPH – Portuguese court physician and scientist at the end of the fifteenth century. He was a pupil of Abraham Zacuto, under whom he studied mathematics and cosmography, on which latter subject he was regarded as an eminent authority...
VEGETARIANISM – The theory according to which it is desirable to sustain the body with vegetables and fruits, and abstain from eating animal food or any product thereof. Rab said that Adam was prohibited from eating meat. "Dominion" in Gen. i....
VELLUM – Skins of animals constituted the ancient Oriental writing-material (Herodotus, v. 58; Strabo, xv. 1; Pauly-Wissowa, "Real-Encyc." ii. 944), and the Jews employed them as early as the Biblical period (Blau, "Das Althebräische...
VERA Y ALARCON, LOPE DE – Spanish martyr and knight ("caballero i mui emparentado," as he is designated by a contemporary) of noble family; born about 1619 at San Clemente la Mancha; died July 25, 1644, at Valladolid. Through his study of the Hebrew...
VIENNA – Capital of Austria-Hungary. Legend asserts that Jews settled in this city in the remotest antiquity, and it is alleged that some were among the first colonists that Rome sent to the Danube. In 905 decrees were issued fixing the...
VIDAS, SAMUEL BEN ḤABIB DE – Spanish scholar and Bible commentator of the fifteenth century; it is said, but not known with certainty, that he was a physician also. He wrote a commentary on Lamentations, entitled "Perush Megillat Ekah," which appeared in...