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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
VILLEFRANCHE – Town in the mountain district of the department of Rousillon, France; belonged formerly to Aragon. It was founded in 1095, and had a Jewish population as early as the middle of the thirteenth century, among the first settlers...
VIRTUE, ORIGINAL – A term invented by S. Levy as a contrast to the expression "original sin," and designating the specifically Jewish concept of the influence of the virtue of ancestors upon descendants. The doctrine asserts that God visits the...
WAHB IBN MUNABBIH (Abu 'Abd Allah al-Ṣana'ani al-Dhimari) – Mohammedan traditionist of Dhimar (two days' journey from Sanaa) in Yemen; died at the age of ninety, in a year variously given by Arabic authorities as 725, 728, 732, and 737 C.E. On his father's side he was descended from...
VITAL, DAVID B. SOLOMON VITAL HA-ROFE – Spanish scholar; emigrated from Spain in the early part of the sixteenth century; died at Arta, or Narda, in Greece, after 1536. He went first to Turkey, and then settled at Patras in the Morea, remaining there until the fall of...
VITRINGA, CAMPEGIUS (the Elder) – Dutch Christian Hebraist; born at Leeuwarden May 16, 1669; died at Franeker March 31, 1722. He was educated at the universities of Franeker and Leyden, and became professor of Oriental languages at the former in 1681. His two...
VOGEL, SIR JULIUS – Agent-general in London for New Zealand; born in London Feb. 25, 1835; died there March 13, 1899. He was the son of Albert Lee Vogel, and was educated at University College School. Left an orphan, he emigrated to Australia in...
WAGNER, WILHELM RICHARD – German composer of music; born at Leipsic May 22, 1813; died at Venice Feb. 13, 1883. He commenced the study of music at the University of Leipsic, but had a struggling existence till 1839, when he made the acquaintance of...
WAHLTUCH, ADOLPHUS – English physician; born in Odessa, Russia, 1837. He studied medicine at Kiev, Prague, and London (M.D., L.R.C.P., 1863), and then settled in Manchester as a practising physician. He is known as a successful practitioner and as a...
WAKRULKAR, SOLOMON ELIJAH – Beni-Israel soldier; enlisted in the Nineteenth Regiment Native (Indian) Infantry Sept. 25, 1838. He was promoted jemidar Jan. 1, 1853; subahdar, Jan. 22, 1858; subahdar-major, Jan. 1, 1872. In 1877 he was decorated with the...
WALDSTEIN, CHARLES – Anglo-American archeologist; born in New York March 30, 1856. He was educated at Columbia College, New York city (A.M. 1873), and studied also at Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1875) and finally at Cambridge, England (M.A. and Litt.D. 1878)....
WALEY, JACOB – English lawyer and professor of political economy; born in London March 17, 1819; died there June, 1873. He was the elder son of Solomon Jacob Levy (who adopted the name of Waley), and was educated at Neumegen's school at...
WALEY, SIMON WALEY – English merchant, musician, and communal worker; born in London Aug. 23, 1827; died there Dec. 30, 1875; younger son of Solomon Jacob Levy. He studied at University College, London, but left without taking a degree. At the age...
WALLICH – German family which probably derived its name from the Hebrew transcription of "Falk" ( ). The earliest known members of it are Joseph b. Meïr Wallich, a physician, and Moses Joshua Wallich, both of whom lived at Worms in the...
WALTON, BRYAN – Christian Hebraist; born in 1600 at Hilton, Yorkshire, England; died in London Nov. 29, 1661; educated at Magdalene and Peterhouse colleges, Cambridge. He became a London clergyman and was involved in the question of tithes...
WANDERING JEW – Imaginary figure of a Jerusalem shoemaker who, taunting Jesus on the way to crucifixion, was told by him to "go on forever till I return." The legend first appeared in a pamphlet of four leaves entitled "Kurtze Beschreibung und...
WANDSWORTH, LORD SIDNEY STERN – English banker and peer; born in London 1845; son of Viscount de Stern, senior partner of the firm of Stern Brothers. He was educated at Magdalene College, Cambridge, and was for some time a member of the firm established by his...
WARBURG – Family whose members are widely spread throughout Germany, Denmark, Sweden, England, and America. There is a tradition that the family was originally settled at Bologna, but emigrated to the Westphalian town of Warburg, whence...
WEHU RAḤUM – A prayer, beginning with Ps. lxxviii. 38, recited on Mondays and Thursdays before Taḥanun. It is composed chiefly of Biblical verses, and is divided into seven parts: (1) "Wehu Raḥum"; (2) "Haṭṭeh Elo'a Ozneka"; (3) "Habbeṭ Na";...
WASKER, SILLEMAN ABAJEE (SOLOMON ABRAHAM) – Beni-Israel soldier; died about 1850. He enlisted in the Third Regiment Native (Indian) Light Infantry, Jan. 1, 1809, and was present at the battles of Puna, Rusood, Khur, Multan, Kittoor, and Gujarat, rising ultimately to the...
WASSERZUG, HAIM – English ḥazzan and composer; born at Sheritz, Prussian Poland, 1822; died at Brighton, England, Aug. 24, 1882. As a child he was endowed with a remarkably sweet voice, and at eighteen he was elected ḥazzan at Konin. His renown...
WAY, LEWIS – English clergyman; born at Denham, Bucks, England, Feb. 11, 1772; died in London Jan. 26, 1840. He was educated at Merton College, Oxford, and was called to the bar in 1797, but entered the Church and devoted to Church purposes...
WEATHER-LORE – Popular prognostications regarding the weather. A certain number of these occur in the Talmud (B. B. 147a). If the weather at Shabu'ot is clear, sow wheat. If the smoke of the altar turns to the north on the last days of...
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES – Derived from Babylonia. — Biblical Data: While the references in the Old Testament are sufficient for a general knowledge of the ancient Hebrew system of weights and measures, and of the mutual relations of the several units,...
WELT, DIE – Zionist periodical, published weekly at Vienna (it is arranged to remove its headquarters to Berlin in 1906). The first number appeared June 4, 1897, since which time the periodical has been issued regularly. At one time a...
WEISSENBERG, SAMUEL ABRAMOWITCH – Russian physician and anthropologist; born in Yelizavetgrad, South Russia, Dec. 16, 1867. He attended the public school and the real-school of his native town; entered the Polytechnicum in Carlsruhe, Baden, in 1884; and received...