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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
ZE'ERA – Love of Holy Land. Palestinian amora of the third generation; born in Babylonia, where he spent his early youth. He was a pupil of Ḥisda (Ber. 49a), of Huna (ib.), and of Judah b. Ezekiel in Pumbedita. He associated also with...
ZE'IRI – Amora of the third century; born in Babylonia. He sojourned for a long time in Alexandria, and later went to Palestine, where he became a pupil of Rabbi Johanan. In the name of Ḥanina b. Ḥama he transmitted the maxim that he who...
ZEITLIN, JOSHUA – Russian rabbinical scholar and philanthropist; born at Shklov in 1742; died at Kherson Aug. 18, 1822. He was a pupil of the casuist Aryeh Loeb, the author of "Sha'agat Aryeh"; and, being an expert in political economy, he stood...
ZEITLIN, JOSHUA B. AARON – Russian scholar and philanthropist; born at Kiev Oct. 10, 1823; died at Dresden Jan. 11, 1888. While he was still young his parents removed to Chernobyl, where he associated with the Ḥasidim, later devoting himself to the study...
ZEITLIN, WILLIAM – Russian scholar and bibliographer; born at Homel, government of Moghilef, about the middle of the nineteenth century. He is known especially as the author of "Ḳiryat Sefer," or "Bibliotheca Hebraica Post-Mendelssohniana"...
ZELAZOWSKA, CATHERINE – Polish convert to Judaism; born in 1460; martyred at Cracow in 1540. She was the widow of an alderman of Cracow; and at the time when, influenced by the Bible, Polish Christendom was divided into different sects, she followed...
ZELOPHEHAD – Biblical Data: A Manassite who in one passage is called the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the grandson of Manasseh (Num. xxvi. 29-33), and in another is set down as the second son of Manasseh (I Chron. vii. 15). The...
ZELOPHEHAD – Biblical Data: A Manassite who in one passage is called the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the grandson of Manasseh (Num. xxvi. 29-33), and in another is set down as the second son of Manasseh (I Chron. vii. 15). The...
ẒEMAḤ BEN ḤAYYIM – Gaon of Sura from 889 to 895. He was the stepbrother and successor of Nahshon ben Zadok, and has become known especially through the reply which he madeto the inquiry of the Kairwanites regarding Eldad ha-Dani. This responsum,...
ẒEMAḤ BEN KAFNAI – Gaon of Pumbedita from 936 to 938, at the time when Saadia had been reinstated in the gaonate of Sura after his excommunication. Nothing is known concerning his life or his works.Bibliography: Letter of Sherira, in Neubauer's...
ZEMIROT – Sabbath Hymns. ZEMIROT-Melodies at GraceGRACE AFTER MEALS SABBATH REST AIRS OF THE ḤASIDIM KI ESHMERAH SHABBAT A term applied by the Sephardim to the Psalms in the earlier sections of the morning service. The Ashkenazim, on the...
ZEPHANIAH BEN MORDECAI TROKI – Karaite scholar and author; flourished during the latter part of the sixteenth century; brother of Joseph b. Mordecai Troki. He was the author of "Ḳiddush ha-Ḥodesh we-Sod ha-'Ibbur," a work on the calendar, and of responsa on...
ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI GERONDI – Talmudic author and liturgical poet of the twelfth century; disciple of Moses ben Joseph of Narbonne. Azulai and many others, influenced by the statement of Zacuto ("Sefer ha-Yuḥasin," ed. Filopowski, p. 218) that Zerahiah...
ZERAHIAH HA-YEWANI (RaZaH) – Byzantine ethical writer of the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Of his life no details are known, except that he was the author of an ethical work entitled "Sefer ha-Yashar," which was confused with Jacob Tam's halakic work of...
ZERED, BROOK – One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness, indicated as the end of the thirty-eighth year of wandering (Num. xxi. 12; Deut. ii. 13-14). The Targum of pseudo-Jonathan renders the name by "valley where willows grow,"...
ẒEROR, RAPHAEL JEDIDIAH SOLOMON BEN JESHUA – Algerian rabbi; born at Algiers Sept. 8, 1681; died there Dec. 21, 1737. He was a descendant of a family of distinguished Talmudists, and his grandfather, Solomon Ẓeror, was, like himself, chief rabbi of Algiers. Together with...
ZIDON (SIDON) – 1. Eldest son of Canaan (Gen. x. 15; I Chron. i. 13).2. According to Strabo (xvi. 2), the oldest city of Canaan; situated twenty miles south of Beirut. Its territory extended from the slopes of the Lebanon to the coast, and was...
ZIKLAG – Simeonitic town which, after the union of the tribes of Simeon and Judah, became Judean; first mentioned in the account of the territory and borders of the individual tribes (Josh. xv. 31, xix. 5). In the early part of the regal...
ZIMMER, NATHAN LÖB DAVID – English pietist and scholar; born at Fürth, Bavaria, in March, 1831; died at London Jan. 10, 1895. He was noted in London for his intense piety, which he probably inherited from his father, who was a fervent ẓaddiḳ. Zimmer went...
ZIMMERN, HELEN – German authoress; born at Hamburg March 25, 1846. She went to England at an early age, and resided there till 1887, when she removed to Florence. She has written lives of Schopenhauer (1873), Maria Edgeworth (1883), and Sir...
ZIONIDES – The songs of Zion, i.e., the lyrical hymns which express the longing of the Jewish nation to see the hill of Zion and the city of Jerusalem shine again in all their former glory, date back to the time immediately after the...
ZIPPORAH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Jethro and wife of Moses. According to the Bible,Moses met the daughters of Jethro when they were being driven away from a well by shepherds; he assisted them, and was invited into the house of Jethro,...
ZODIAC – An imaginary zone of the heavens containing the twelve signs within which lie the paths of the principal planets, and through which the sun passes in its annual course. The signs, mostly representing symbols of animals, extend...
ZOHAR – Source. A pseudepigraphic work which pretends to be a revelation from God communicated through R. Simeon ben Yoḥai to the latter's select disciples. Under the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch, written partly in Aramaic and...
ZOMBER, BERNHARD (BÄR) – Polish scholar; born at Lask in 1821; died at Berlin in 1884. Having acquired a fair knowledge of rabbinical literature in his native country, he went to Germany, where he studied successively under Joseph Shapiro and Jacob...