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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New York City.

Contributions:
ADMISSIONS IN EVIDENCE – The best evidence in Jewish law must be attested by at least two witnesses, and be of a disinterested and impartialcharacter; hence self-admission, or voluntary confession, is not good evidence, and is not admissible except in...
ALIMONY – The allowance made to a woman by an order of court, from her husband's estate or income, for her maintenance after her divorce or legal separation from him, or during a suit therefor" ("Standard Dictionary"). This is its...
ALYASHAR, JACOB – Talmudist; born at Wilna, Russia, about 1735; died in Safed about 1785. The congregation at Hebron in 1765 sent him as their emissary (meshullaḦ) to Persia. On the out-break of a war in 1775, Bozrah, the city in which he...
ALYASHAR , JACOB SAUL – akam Bashi (chief rabbi) of Jerusalem; born at Safed, June 1, 1817. He was taken to Jerusalem in 1823. His teacher was R. Benjamin Mordecai Nabon, who, in 1828, married his widowed mother. In 1855 Alvashar was appointed...
ART, ATTITUDE OF JUDAISM TOWARD – Art, the working out of the laws of beauty in the construction of things, is regarded in the Bible as wisdom resulting from divine inspiration (Ex. xxxi. 1-6, xxxv. 30-35, xxxvi.-4), and is called in the Talmud "hokmah"...
ASH, ABRAHAM JOSEPH – Talmudist; born in Semyatitch, Russia, about 1813; died in New York city May 6, 1888. Coming to the United States in 1852, he helped to organize, in New York city, the first Russian-American congregation, Bet ha-Midrash...
AUERBACH, MEIR B. ISAAC – Talmudist and chief rabbi of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem; born Feb. 10, 1815, at Dobria near Kalish, Russian Poland; died May 8, 1878, at Jerusalem. He was rabbi at Kalish when, in 1860, actuated by his love for the Holy Land,...
BEN JUDAH, ELIEZER – Palestinian editor; born at Luzhky, government of Wilna, Jan. 7, 1858; son of Judah Perlman—hence his name "Ben Judah." He received his early Talmudic education at the yeshibah of Rabbi Joseph Blücker at Polotzk, afterward was...
BERLIN, NAPHTALI ẒEBI JUDAH – Head of the yeshibah of Volozhin, Russia; born at Mir, in the government of Minsk, in 1817; died at Warsaw Aug. 10, 1893. In 1831 Berlin, who was a descendant of a scholarly family, married the daughter of Isaac b. Ḥayyim, the...
BLIND, THE, IN LAW AND LITERATURE – The ancient nations regarded blindness as the lowest degradation that could be inflicted upon man; hence gouging out the eyes of an enemy was a form of national retaliation. The Philistines bored out the eyes of Samson, and the...
BURIAL SOCIETY – Organization for providing proper burial rites. There is hardly a congregation of Jews in the world without an association specially organized for the following purposes: to conduct the burial service without charge; to be...
CHOIR – A collection of singers with trained voices who take part in divine service and who are separated from the congregation. The first choir mentioned in the Bible is the one organized by the Levites for the Temple service, to be...
COFFIN – The custom of using coffins is probably borrowed from the Egyptians. It is recorded of Joseph that he was "put in a coffin in Egypt" (Gen. 1. 26). Tradition says it was of metal (Soṭah 13a). Both the Ark of the Covenant and the...
CORONEL, NAḤMAN NATHAN – Palestinian scholar of Sephardic-Ashkenazic parentage; born at Amsterdam 1810; died at Jerusalem Aug. 6, 1890. His teacher was R. Abraham Susan. In 1830 he emigrated to Safed, Palestine, where he married, afterward settling in...
COVO – Name of a Jewish family of Salonica, Turkey, a branch of which lives at Widdin, Bulgaria. As the name indicates, the family was originally of Covo, near Milan, Italy. There have been several rabbis of this name.D.Asher Covo, or...
CROWN OF THE LAW – A coronet, usually made of gilded silver, with bells, bearing the Hebrew inscription . It is placed upon the upper ends of the handles of the scroll of the Law. Sometimes the crown is a double one. A similar emblem, often borne...
CROWNS OF THE RIGHTEOUS – The future bliss of the righteous is described by Rab in Ber. 17b: "There is neither eating and drinking nor marrying nor bargaining nor envy nor hatred nor quarrel in the world to come; but the righteous sit with crowns upon...
DEATH, VIEWS AND CUSTOMS CONCERNING – In Biblical and Apocryphal Literature: The ancient Hebrews expected to "be gathered to [or sleep with] their fathers" when death befell them (Gen. xxv. 8, xlvii. 30), and feared only the idea of going down to Sheol mourning (ib....
DEVOTIONAL LITERATURE – Aside from the regular prayers, which are treated under Liturgy, there exists a literature of private devotions, prayers offered on special occasions. Such devotions are strongly recommended in the Talmud, where private prayers...
EDEN, GARDEN OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin. The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (=...
ELDER, REBELLIOUS – An elder who defies the authoritative rabbinic interpretation of the Mosaic Law. In the period when the Sanhedrin flourished this was a capital offense, punishable by strangulation (Sanh. xi. 1). This is based on Deut. xvii....
ETIQUETTE – Rules governing intercourse in polite society. Such rules are supposed by the Rabbis to have been laid down by the Bible itself. Moses modestly uses the plural in saying to Joshua, "Choose for us men and go fight with Amalek"...
FAMILY VAULT – An exclusive burial-place for the members of a family. The desire of the ancient Hebrews to "lie with their fathers," and particularly the charge of Jacob to his sons to remove his body from Egypt and to bury it in the Cave of...
FEE – A payment for service done or to be done, usually for professional or special services, the amount being usually fixed by law or custom. The duties discharged by the Levites in connection with the service of the Tabernacle and,...
FLAG – A standard or banner having a certain color, emblem, and sometimes an inscription, and carried before a marching army to distinguish its nationality. Flags are of ancient origin. According to the Bible, each of the twelve tribes...