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Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New York City.

Contributions:
FLOWERS IN THE HOME AND THE SYNAGOGUE – As an agricultural people the Jews in their own land appreciated flowers as a means of natural decoration. The first crop offruits offered at the altar in Jerusalem on the Feast of Harvest (Ex. xxiii. 16) was crowned with the...
FRINGES – Threads with a cord of blue entwined, fastened to the four corners of the Arba' Kanfot and the Ṭallit and pendent, like a tassel, in conformity with Num. xv. 38-40 and Deut. xxii. 12.The ẓiẓit consisted, according to Bet...
FRUMKIN, ISRAEL DOB (BÄR) – Hebrew author; born in Dubrovna, Russia, Oct. 29, 1850. His father, Alexander Frumkin, when sixty years old emigrated to Jerusalem (1860). In 1869 Frumkin edited the Hebrew semi-monthly newspaper "Ḥabaẓẓelet," which had been...
GALLERY – An elevated floor, or a balcony, in the interior of a church, synagogue, or other large building, resting on columns, and surrounded by a balustrade. In the Orthodox synagogues it is reserved for women; for the modern usage see...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GOLEM – Embryo. This word occurs only once in the Bible, in Ps. cxxxix. 16, where it means "embryo." In tradition everything that is in a state of incompletion, everything not fully formed, as a needle without the eye, is designated as...
GREETING, FORMS OF – Fixed modes of address on meeting acquaintances. With the ancient Hebrews the form of greeting depended upon the relationship of the persons. It expressed interest and sympathy, love and affection, or reverence and honor. It...
ḤALUḲḲAH – An organized collection of funds for distribution among the indigent Jews in the Holy Land, and for the aid of those who, moved by religious motives, desire to journey thither. Sympathizing coreligionists of almost every...
HARKAVY – Russo-Jewish family. It originated, according to a tradition current in the family, with Mordecai Jaffe, author of the "Lebushim." The immediate ancestor was Joseph of Turetz (d. 1778), Turetz being a town near Nowogrudok, in...
HATTARAT HORA'AH – A rabbinical diploma; a written certificate given to one who, after a thorough examination, proves himself competent and worthy to be a rabbi. It is a substitute for the "semikah," which could be conferred only in Palestine, by...
HOROLOGY – The science of the measurement of time. Portions of time are distinguished in the first chapter of Genesis. The term "from time to time" (I Chron. ix. 25) means from hour to hour, that is, a complete day, just as in the Talmud...
HOSHAIAH – Palestinian amora of the third and fourth amoraic generations (died about 350 C.E.). It is supposed that his colleague Ḥanina was his brother (Sanh. 14a; see Edels, "Ḥiddushe Agadot," ad loc.). They were lineal descendants from...
HOSHAIAH RABBAH, ROBA, BERABBI – Palestinian amora of the first amoraic generation (about 200 C.E.); compiler of baraitot explaining the Mishnah-Tosefta. He was closely associated with the successors of Rabbi, as was his father with Rabbi himself. Hoshaiah's...
HOSHAIAH ZE'ERA DE-MIN ḤABRAYA – Palestinian amora of the third amoraic period (died about 350 C.E.). In the Tosafot it is claimed that "Ḥabraya" was the name of his birth-place, but according to Rashi the word means a "society of colleagues," and the surname...
IDI – Name of several Babylonian amoraim who flourished from the middle of the second to the middle of the fifth century. In the Talmud "Idi" is sometimes interchanged with "Ada" ( ), according to the variation of pronunciation...
IDI B. ABIN NAGGARA – Babylonian amora of the fourth period (about 350). His father, whose name ("Naggara"="carpenter") probably indicates his occupation, came from Nerash or Nerus ( ), in Babylonia. The son, Idi (or Ada), gave an explanation in the...
IDI B. GERSHOM (ADA B. GERSHON) – Babylonian amora of the tannaitic period (about 150); father of Idi b. Idi (Ḥul. 98a; comp. Yer. Ter. x. 10). There is some connection between Idi b. Gershom and Idi b. Jacob I.; perhaps they were brothers-in-law. Idi quotes Ada...
IDI B. JACOB II – Babylonian amora of the second period (about 250). Idi was a disciple of Johanan. The journey from Idi's home in Babylonia to the yeshibah of Johanan at Tiberias occupied about three months, and two journeys there and back in...
IDIT – Name of an amora who is known only from a passage preserved by Naḥman (Sanh. 38b), the passage being a part of a controversy between Idit and a heretic. The proper reading of the name is "Idi" ( ) and this amora is identical...
INCENSE – An aromatic substance which exhales perfume during combustion; the odor of spices and gums burned as an act of worship. In ancient times, on account of the extreme heat of the Orient, incense was used, as it is to-day, to a much...
INCENSE – An aromatic substance which exhales perfume during combustion; the odor of spices and gums burned as an act of worship. In ancient times, on account of the extreme heat of the Orient, incense was used, as it is to-day, to a much...
INCEST – Biblical Data: Marriage or carnal commerce between persons of a close degree of consanguinity. Even in modern times the connotation of "incestuous" is not the same in all countries. Among primitive and barbarous races there is a...
JAFFE (JOFFE) – Family of rabbis, scholars, and communal workers, with members in Germany, Austria, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States. It traces its descent from Mordecai Jaffe (1530-1612), author of the "Lebushim," and his...
JAHRZEIT – Accompanied with Fasting. Judæo-German term denoting the anniversary of a death, commemorated by mourning and by reciting the Ḳaddish. The custom of commemorating the death of the beloved and honored is of ancient origin ( see...