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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Judah David Eisenstein,

Author, New York City.

Contributions:
ḲADDISH – Name of the doxology recited, with congregational responses, at the close of the prayers in the synagogue; originally, and now frequently, recited after Scripture readings and religious discourses in schoolhouse or synagogue. It...
KALISZ – City in the government of the same name in Russian Poland; situated on the River Prosna, near the Prussian frontier. Its Jewish community is one of the oldest in Poland. In 1264 Boleslaw the Pious granted the Jews of Kalisz...
LEMBERG – Capital of Galicia, Austria; 180 miles east of Cracow and 60 miles from the Russian frontier. Its population in 1869 was 87,109 of whom 26,694 were Jews; in 1890 it was 127,943, including 36,130 Jews; in 1900 there were 44,801...
LODZ (LODZI) – City in the government of Piotrkow, Russian Poland, about 90 miles west of Warsaw. As late as 1821 it was only a village of 800 inhabitants, when the manufacture of woolens was first introduced there by Germans Later,...
LUBLIN – City of Russian Poland, in the government of the same name; situated 60 miles southeast of Warsaw; in importance the third city of Poland. Numbers of Jews were living in Lublin in the fourteenth century. They were not allowed to...
MA'ARIB – The evening prayer, from the first benediction in which the name is taken, the Talmudic term being "Tefillat 'Arbit"; one of the three daily prayers instituted in conformity with the practise of David ("Evening, and morning,...
MAFṬIR – 1. The reader of the concluding portion of the Pentateuchal section on Sabbaths and holy days in the synagogue. On regular Sabbaths that portion forms a part of the section read by the seventh reader, and is repeated by the one...
MAGGID – Itinerant preacher, skilled as a narrator of stories. A preacher of the more scholarly sort was called "darshan" and usually occupied the official position of rabbi. The title of "maggid mesharim" (= "a preacher of uprightness";...
MANTLE OF THE LAW – The cover of the scroll of the Pentateuch. The Hebrew name "mappah" is derived from the Greek μάππα. Originally, a wrapping of fine silk was spread along the full length of the parchment, to protect the writing from dust and...
MAẒẒAH – Bread that is free from leaven or other foreign elements. It is kneaded with water and without yeast or any other chemical effervescent substance, and is hastily prepared to prevent the dough from undergoing the process of...
MENORAH – The holy candelabrum. For Biblical Data See Candlestick. The Mosaic Menorah as Described in Rabbinical Literature.(After a sketch by J. D. Eisenstein, New York.)—In Rabbinical Literature: The Talmud speaks only of the menorah...
MERIDIAN, DATE- – Imaginary line fixed upon as the one along which the reckoning of the calendar day changes. East of this line the day is dated one day earlier than the west of it. The date-meridian involves many Jewish questions, such as fixing...
MIEDZYRZECZ – Town in the government of Siedlce, Russian Poland; near Warsaw. It has (1904) a population of 13,681, of whom 9,000 are Jews. The first Jewish settlement dates probably from the sixteenth century, its members coming from Germany...
MINḤAH PRAYER – The afternoon devotional service of the Jewish liturgy. The term is probably derived from Elijah's prayer at "the time of the offering of the evening ["minḥah"] sacrifice" (I Kings xviii. 36). Minḥah is one of the three daily...
MITER – A head-dress; one of the sacred garments of the priests. The high priest's miter was designated as "miẓnefet," and was made of fine linen, to which the diadem ("ẓiẓ") of pure gold, inscribed with the title "Holiness to the...
MONTH – A unit of time; the period between one new moon and another. According to the account of Creation in Genesis, it was decreed that the "lesser light" should "rule the night" and serve "for signs and for seasons" (Gen. i. 14). The...
MOURNING – Mourning Period. Manifestation of sorrow and grief over the loss, by death or otherwise, of a relative, a friend, an honored leader or prophet, or over a national calamity.—Biblical Data: It is recorded that Abraham mourned for...
NAMES OF GOD – Biblical Data: Like other Hebrew proper names, the name of God is more than a mere distinguishing title. It represents the Hebrew conception of the divine nature or character and of the relation of God to His people. It...
NEW MOON, BLESSING OF THE – The periodical reappearance of the moon, like the reappearance of everything that is a benefit to mankind, such as fruits in their respective seasons, should be recognized by praise and gratitude to the Creator. The benediction...
NEW-YEAR – Biblical Data: In the earliest times the Hebrew year began in autumn with the opening of the economic year. There followed in regular succession the seasons of seed-sowing, growth and ripening of the corn under the influence of...
NEW-YEAR FOR TREES – Arbor Day. The anniversary of the festival of trees, which occurs on the 15th of Shebaṭ (roughly corresponding to Feb. 1), is known as "Ḥamishshah 'Asar bi-Shebaṭ," or as "Ḥamishshah 'Asar" (= "the fifteenth"), and is celebrated...
ORGAN – According to Jewish authorities, the organ was one of the instruments of music in the Temple. In the Authorized Version rendering of Ps. cl. 4 the terms "stringed instruments" and "organs" used to translate the Hebrew "minnim"...
PALESTINE – The Name. The portion of Syria which was formerly the possession of the Israelites. It includes the whole of the country between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean as well as the country immediately to the east of the...
PALESTINE, HOLINESS OF – The sacredness of Palestine in the esteem of the Jews is partly accounted for by the fact that it was the cradle and sepulcher of their Patriarchs and their "Promised Land." Moreover, many of the Mosaic laws could apply to...
PALESTINE, LAWS AND CUSTOMS RELATING TO – Special laws, operative only in the Holy Land, are called "miẓwot ha-teluyot ba-areẓ," and may be classified as follows: (1) Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple ("bi-zeman habayit") and in connection with the...