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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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J. G. Lipman, Ph.D.

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.

Contributions:
PASTERNAK, LEONID OSIPOVICH – Russian painter; born at Odessa, 1862, of well-to-do parents. According to a family tradition, he is descended on his father's side from a family of Spanish refugees at Padua, which removed in the eighteenth century to Galicia,...
PECHERSKI, FEODOSI – Russian saint of the eleventh century (1057-74). According to the so-called Nestorian chronicles, while superior of the Kiev monastery he was in the habit of visiting at night some learned Jews, with whom he indulged in...
PERETZ, ABRAHAM – Russian financier; friend and contemporary of Nathan Notkin and Nevakhovich. He was a son of the rabbi of Levertov, Galicia, and son-in-law of Joshua Zeitlin of Shklov. In the reign of Paul I., Peretz, in partnership with the...
PINSK – Early Jewish Settlers. Russian city in the government of Minsk, Russia. There were Jews in Pinsk prior to the sixteenth century, and there may have been an organized community there at the time of the expulsion of the Jews from...
PINSKER, LEV (LEV SEMIONOVICH) – Russian physician; born at Tomashev, government of Piotrkow (Piotrikov), Poland, 1821; son of Sim-ḥah Pinsker; died at Odessa Dec. 21, 1891. Pinsker obtained his early education in his father's school, the curriculum of which...
RAZSVYET – Page from the Sefer Raziel., Amsterdam, 1701.(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)Russo-Jewish weekly; founded in Odessa by Osip Rabinovich May, 1860. It was the first journal...
RIGA – Capital of the government of Livonia, Russia; situated on the River Düna, about 6 miles from its mouth.Jews are first mentioned in the public documents of Livonia of 1560. In the negotiations between the city and King Sigismund...
RIVKIN, MIRON DAVIDOVICH – Russian writer; born in Vitebsk in 1869. His father, who was employed as clerk in the police department, was a Talmudist of no mean ability. Rivkin obtained his early education in the ḥeder, where he showed marked ability in...
RUBINSTEIN, ANTON GRIGORYEVICH – Russian pianist and composer; born Nov. 16 (28), 1829, in the village of Wechwotynetz (Vikhvatinetz), near Jassy, Bessarabia; died at Peterhof, near St. Petersburg, Nov. 20, 1894; brother of Nikolai (Nicholas) Rubinstein. His...
RUSSIA – History: [Much of the history of the Jews of Russia having already appeared under the headings Alexander, Armenia, Caucasus, Cossacks, etc., the present article has been framed so as to include only those facts which are...
RUSSIA – History: [Much of the history of the Jews of Russia having already appeared under the headings Alexander, Armenia, Caucasus, Cossacks, etc., the present article has been framed so as to include only those facts which are...
RUSSIA – History: [Much of the history of the Jews of Russia having already appeared under the headings Alexander, Armenia, Caucasus, Cossacks, etc., the present article has been framed so as to include only those facts which are...
SABSOVICH, HIRSCH LEIB – Mayor of Woodbine, N. J.; born at Berdyansk, Russia, Feb. 25, 1860. After his graduation from the classical gymnasium of his native town he spent two years at the University of Odessa. In 1882 he went to Zurich, Switzerland, and...
SAINT PETERSBURG – Capital city of Russia. Antonio Sanchez, a Spanish Jew and member of the Academy of Sciences, lived in St. Petersburg in the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna. In the reign of Catherine II. there were three or four Jews in the city,...
SAMARCAND – Town in Central Asia; chief town of the Zerafshan district of the Russian dominions. According to tradition, Samarcand was built by Emperor Kaikansu between 3000 and 4000 B.C. It was known as Maracanda in ancient times, was...
SHEIN, PAVEL VASILYEVICH – Russian ethnographer; born in 1826; died at Riga Aug. 14, 1900. He studied at the University of Moscow, and after conversion to Protestantism he became in the fifties a teacher of Russian in the district school of Tula and later...
SIBERIA – Russian territory in northern Asia, extending from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, and from the Arctic Sea to the Chinese frontier, with a total population (1902) of 6,276,226, including 31,380 Jews. As a place of...
SLONIM – District town in the government of Grodno, Russia; it became part of Lithuania in 1316. Jews probably lived in Slonim under Grand Duke Gedimin and his followers, although the first documentary evidence that a Jewish community...
STERN, ABRAHAM – Polish inventor and educator; born at Hrubieszow, government of Lublin, 1769; died at Warsaw Feb. 3, 1842. He was the son of poor parents, and showed, while still very young, marked fondness for the study of Hebrew books, which...
STERN, BASILIUS – Russian educator; born at Tarnopol, Galicia, in 1798; died at Odessa March 15, 1853. He received a thorough Talmudic education, and later entered the school of Joseph Perl, where, at the age of twenty, he became instructor,...
TAMAN – Peninsula between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof; now included in the Russian province of Kuban. It contains the Cossack settlement of Taman, which has (1897) a population of 4,291. The peninsula was the seat of prosperous...
TRACHTENBERG, HERMAN – Russian jurist; born in Jitomir 1839; died there 1895. He studied law at the University of St. Petersburg, and at the end of his course entered the government service. For meritorious work he was granted the Order of Stanislaus...
TROKI – District city in the government of Wilna, Russia. It was an important Jewish center in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries; and there is a tradition, quoted by Firkovich, that 330 out of the 483 Karaite families...
VINNITSA (VINITZA) – Russian town in the government of Podolia; situated on the banks of the Bug. Vinnitsa was founded in the fourteenth century on the left bank of the Bug, and was protected by two castles. The town suffered much in the sixteenth...
VITEBSK – Russian city; capital of the government of the same name; situated on both banks of the Düna. It was probably founded before the tenth century, and is mentioned in Russian chronicles as early as 1021. Being included in the...