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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
ADINO THE EZNITE – Biblical Data: In II Sam. xxiii. 8 et seq., in which the names of David's heroes are recorded, occur two mysterious words, (according to the ḳeri), which came to be regarded as the designation of one of the heroes. They are thus...
AMON, KING OF JUDAH – Biblical Data: The Biblical accounts of Amon are found in II Kings, xxi. 18-26 and in II Chron. xxxiii. 20-25; and he is mentioned in I Chron. iii. 14 among the descendants of King David. Elsewhere he is spoken of merely as the...
APÔPHIS – The Egyptian king under whom, according to some early writers, Joseph came to Egypt, and who, according to Syncellus, flourished in the sixteenth century B.C. ("Chronographia," c. 115, § 7). Josephus names Apôphis as the second,...
APPLE – Biblical Data: The word "apple" is the commonly accepted translation of tappuaḦ, from the root napaḦ (to exhale = the sweet-scented). It is of pleasant smell ("the smell of thy nose like apples," Cant. vii. 9 [A. V. 8]), and is...
APPLE – Biblical Data: The word "apple" is the commonly accepted translation of tappuaḦ, from the root napaḦ (to exhale = the sweet-scented). It is of pleasant smell ("the smell of thy nose like apples," Cant. vii. 9 [A. V. 8]), and is...
AR – Occurs as follows in the Old Testament: Num. xxi. 15, 28; Deut. ii. 9, 18, 29; Isa. xv. 1. It is generally identified with the Hebrew "'ir" (city), so that "Ar Moab" would be "city of Moab," a supposed ancient capital of the...
ARABAH – The Hebrew word Arabah ( ) denotes desert, steppe. With the article, it refers especially to that extensive depression the center of which is marked by the Dead Sea. In some passages it is applied to the southern portion of this...
ARABIA – Peninsula lying between the mainlands of Africa and Asia. It is separated from Africa on the south by the Red Sea and on the north by the Sinaitic peninsula and the strip of land which in modern times has been cut through for...
ARAD – 1. Son of Beriah in the genealogical list of Benjamin (I Chron. viii. 15).2. A Canaanite city in the wilderness of Judah (Judges i. 16), against which the Jews fought successfully (Num. xxi. 1, xxxiii. 40). Later it was...
ARADUS – A Phenician city on the island now called Ruad, eighty miles north of Sidon. It is the Arvad of Ezek. xxvii. 8, 11, the Armad of Tiglath-pileser III., and is also mentioned on the Egyptian monuments. Jews had migrated thither in...
ARAM – Location. —Biblical Data: The name of a group of kindred tribes scattered over portions of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Arabia. It is not the name of a country or of a politically independent people; for the Aramaic peoples were...
ARAM-GESHUR – An Aramean district and a small kingdom near Maachah (II Sam. xv. 8) (see Aram-Maachah), and associated with it in Josh. xiii. 13. David married the daughter of its king (II Sam. iii. 3). She became the mother of Absalom, who...
ARAM-MAACHAH – I Chron. xix. 6): A district south of Damascus, bordering on the trans-Jordanic territory of Manasseh. Maachah is said in Gen. xxii. 24 to have been a descendant of Nahor, Abraham's brother, and the territory called after him is...
ARAM-NAHARAIM – A region somewhat ill-defined, mentioned six times in the Bible. In the title of Ps. lx., and in I Chron. xix. 6, it is used for the region beyond the Euphrates (compare II Sam. x. 16). It is stated in Judges iii. 8, 10, that...
ARAM-REHOB – A district of Syria, of which the chief city was Rehob or Beth-Rehob, associated with Aram-Zobah as hostile to David. Num. xiii. 21 and Judges xviii. 28 place a Beth-Rehob in the Lebanon region near Dan. Moore (Commentary on...
ARAM-ZOBAH – The capital of an Aramean state, at one time of considerable importance. The statement in I Sam. xiv. 47, that its king fought with Saul, has hitherto been unconfirmed. No such doubt, however, attaches to the account of the war...
ARARAT – A district in eastern Armenia lying between the lakes Van and Urmia and the river Araxes. The Biblical name corresponds to the Assyrian Urarṭu, a land invaded and partially conquered by Asshurnazir-pal and Shalmaneser II. The...
ARAUNAH – A Jebusite whose threshing-floor in Jerusalem was pointed out to David by the prophet Gad as a fitting place for the erection of an altar of burnt offering to Jehovah after the great plague had been stayed, since it was there...
ARBA – The hero of the Anakim, who lived at Kirjath-arba, a city named in his honor (Josh. xiv. 15). In Josh. xv. 13 and xxi. 11 he is called the father of Anak, which evidently means that he was regarded as the ancestor of the...
ARBATTIS – A place mentioned in I Mace. v. 23 in connection with Galilee, from both of which districts Simon Maccabeus brought back some captive Jews to Jerusalem. Its exact situation has not been positively identified.J. Jr. G. B....
ARBELA – Biblical Data: In I Mace. ix. 2, Arbela is the district in which Mesaloth was situated, and through which ran the road to Gilgal (for which Josephus, "Ant." xii. 11, § 1, gives Galilee). It is probably to be identified with the...
ARCHEOLOGY, BIBLICAL – The branch of archeology that has for its province a scientific presentation of the domestic, civil, and religious institutions of the Hebrews, in the lands of the Bible, especially in Palestine. It deals with these for the...
ARCHEVITES – A people whom Asnapper brought from Erech or Uruk, a political and religious center of Babylonia, and settled in Samaria. They wrote to Artaxerxes concerning the building of the Temple at Jerusalem and had the work on it stopped...
ARGOB – 1. A district in Bashan which was taken from Og by the Jews (Deut. iii. 4), and together with the district of Gilead, was handed over to the halftribe of Manasseh (Deut. iii. 14). One account of the renaming of the land is given...
ARIEL – Biblical Data: 1. Proper name of a man (Ezra viii. 16). The name is recognizable in the name of the Gadite clan Areli (Gen. xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 17, Ariel in LXX.), and occurs also in II Sam. xxiii. 20, R. V., and in I Chron....