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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BOSHETH – Used concretely by the Prophets as "the shameful thing" to designate the Baalim and their images. (See Hosea ix. 10 and Jer. iii. 24, xi. 13, where the word is parallel with "the Baal" [compare Jer. iii. 24]). Later usage...
BOSOR – 1. A city of Gilead, which Judas Maccabeus conquered (I Macc. v. 26, 36). It may be identified with the modern "Buṣr el-Bariri" (Buhl, "Geographie des Alten Palästina," p. 253). 2. The Septuagint reading for Besor (I Sam. xxx....
BOTTLE – The Authorized Version (partly after the example of the Vulgate, which uses "lagena," I Sam. x. 3; "laguncula," Lam. iv. 2) introduced the incorrect translation "bottle" for various words that in reality signify "skins for...
BOX-TREE – Judging by Isa. lx. 13, the box-tree (A. V. "box") is a tree of the Lebanon, promised for the rebuilding of the Temple, together with the "fir-tree and pine." In Isa. xli. 19 there is a prophecy that the fir-tree, the pine, and...
BOZRAH – Biblical Data: 1. According to Isa. xxxiv. 6, lxiii. 1; Amos i. 12; Jer. xlix. 13, 22, one of the principal cities, or perhaps the capital, of Edom. Gen. xxxvi. 33 (= I Chron. i. 44) states that the Edomite king Jobab, son of...
BRACELETS – Gold Bracelet from Cyprus.(From the Cesnola collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.)Ornaments in the form of rings for the arm, worn by the Hebrews, as well as by all ancient peoples. Besides serving as ornaments...
BRAZEN SEA – Biblical Data: The brazen laver of the Mosaic ritual; made by Solomon out of bronze captured by David at Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer (I Chron. xviii. 8). It served the same purpose for the officiating priests of...
BRAZEN SERPENT – Biblical Data: An image set up by Moses which is said to have healed those who looked upon it. When the people of Israel, near the close of the desert wanderings, were marching southward to go around Edom to the east of...
BREASTPLATE – A rendering of the Hebrew "shiryon" or "siryon," which would be more correctly translated "coat of mail" or "cuirass." The kings of Israel used in warfare (I Kings xxii. 34) such body-protectors as were in vogue among their...
BREASTPLATE OF THE HIGH PRIEST – Biblical Data: A species of pouch, adorned with precious stones, worn by the high priest on his breast when he presented in the Holy Place the names of the children of Israel. The etymological significance of the Hebrew word is...
BRICK – The expression "brick" ( ; translated once "tile" in A. V., Ezek. iv. 1) designates both the burnt and the sun-dried brick. However, there is only one certain passage in which the first kind is referred to—viz., Gen. xi. 3—and...
BRIMSTONE – Sulfur in a solid state. It is found in Palestine, in the region along the banks of the Jordan and around the Dead Sea, both in combination with other elements and in its pure state. In the latter condition it is still employed...
BRUTISH – A term applied by the Biblical writers to men whose disposition or spirit was like that of beasts. It is used in close conjunction with "foolish" (Jer. x. 8; Ps. xlix. 10, xciv. 8), and, as indicated in the Hebrew, may mean...
BUFFALO – A name common to different species of Bovidœ. The best known is the Bubalus buffelus, or Bos bubalus, generally called in Eastern countries jamoos or chamoosh, a word of Persian origin, meaning "ram-cow." From India, its native...
BUKKI – 1. Son of Jogli, prince of the tribe of Dan, who represented his tribe in the division of the land (Num. xxxiv. 22). 2. Son of Abishua' and father of Uzzi, a priest, the fourth in line from Aaron (I Chron. v. 31), and ancestor...
BULRUSH – A rush or reed. The term "bulrush" in the Bible occurs once as a translation for "agmon" (Isa. lviii. 5) and twice for "gome" (Ex. ii. 3; Isa. xviii. 15). Both of these words occur elsewhere in the Bible, where they are...
BURNING BUSH – Biblical Data: The name commonly given to the tree from which the angel of Jehovah manifested himself to Moses in a flame of fire; the distinctive feature of the revelation being that the tree was not consumed (Ex. iii. 2-4).—In...
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
BUZ – Second son of Nahor (Gen. xxii. 21). From the language of the genealogical lists, however, it is to be inferred that the name applies to a tribe; and from Jer. xxv. 23 it is clear that it was an Arabic one. It is probable that...
CABUL – A city on the boundary-line of Asher (Josh. xix. 27), identical with the modern Kabul (Buhl, "Geographie," p. 221). Josephus ("Vita," § 43) refers to it as "the village of Chabolo situated in the confines of Ptolemais." The name...
CALAH – The name of a city mentioned in Gen. x. 11 et seq., and forming with Nineveh, Reḥoboth 'Ir, and Resen the chief places in the Assyrian extension of Nimrod's domain. The verse in question embodies a correct tradition that the...
CALAMUS – One of the ingredients (Ex. xxx. 23) of the oil made specially for anointing the tabernacle (Ex. xxx. 26), its vessels (ib. 27-29), and the priests (ib. 30). The calamus reed was fragrant, and is therefore mentioned in the long...
CALEB – Biblical Data: According to the Biblical text, Caleb was of the tribe of Judah. He represented that tribe among the twelve spies whom Mosessent from the wilderness to spy out Canaan. He and Joshua alone brought back an...
CALEB – Biblical Data: According to the Biblical text, Caleb was of the tribe of Judah. He represented that tribe among the twelve spies whom Mosessent from the wilderness to spy out Canaan. He and Joshua alone brought back an...