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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
CALEBITES – A branch of the Edomite clan of Kenaz (compare Judges i. 12 with Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15, 42) that, before the Israelitish conquest, had migrated to southern Judah and settled in the vicinity of Hebron. They appear to have entered...
CALF, GOLDEN – Biblical Data: A portable image overlaid with gold, made by Aaron at Mount Sinai (Ex. xxxii.). As the text stands, it narrates how Moses had gone up into the mountain to receive the Ten Words, and remained forty days. When the...
CALF, GOLDEN – Biblical Data: A portable image overlaid with gold, made by Aaron at Mount Sinai (Ex. xxxii.). As the text stands, it narrates how Moses had gone up into the mountain to receive the Ten Words, and remained forty days. When the...
CALF-WORSHIP – Critical View: Among the Hebrews, as among the other agricultural Semites, the bull was associated with deity in a sacred character (see Ox). The form in which this thought found expression in Israel was in their representation...
CALLIRRHOE – Hot springs on the western side of the Dead Sea, near the Zerka Maim (Buhl, "Geographie des Alten Palästina," p. 123; Smith, "Historical Geography of Palestine," p. 571). Josephus describes the springs ("Ant." xvii. 6, § 2) as...
CALNEH – 1. City, mentioned together with Babylon, Erech, and Accad as forming part of the Babylonian kingdom of Nimrod (Gen. x. 10). The exact site of Calneh is unknown. It has been identified with Nippur (modern Niffer) by Rawlinson on...
CAMEL – The well-known ruminant, native in Asia and Africa. The word "camel" (Hebrew, , gamal) is the same in the Assyrian, Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, Egyptian, and Ethiopic languages. Together with the knowledge of the animal,...
CARAVAN – A convoy of travelers or merchandise. As the commerce of the Israelites was chiefly inland trade, products from regions that were not contiguous were exchanged by means of caravans ("orḥah"). The most important highways...
CASIPHIA – The residence of the Nethinim, who were under the leadership of Iddo (Ezra viii. 17). Ezra sent them a message from Ahava, which resulted in their joining his forces at that place. The exact site of Casiphia is uncertain.J. Jr....
CASSIA – The term given as the translation for "ḳiddah" (Ex. xxx. 24; Ezek. xxvii. 19) and "ḳeẓi'ot" (Ps. xlv. 9). Ancient commentators agree in identifying the two. Onkelos to Ex. xxx. 24 renders "ḳiddah" by "ḳeẓi'ah"; Rashi does the...
CEDAR – A tree of the pine family frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, where the "cedar of Lebanon" is generally meant. The cedar-tree grows best in a high, dry, and sandy region, and it found these requirements in the northern...
CHALDEA – The Hebrew "Kasdim" (generally without the article) usually designates the Chaldeans as a people sometimes also their country (Jer. l. 10; li. 24, 35; Ezek. xi. 24, xvi. 29, xxiii. 15 et seq.) or the people together with the...
CHALPHI – Father of Judas. The latter was one of the two captains who remained when all the others under Jonathan had fled at the battle of the plain of Nasor (I Macc. xi. 70). Josephus refers to Chalphi, but calls him "Chapsios."J. Jr....
CHEBAR – Name of a Babylonian river or canal, by the side of which Ezekiel "saw visions" (Ezek. i. 1, 3; iii. 15, 23; x. 15 et seq.). The Hebrew "nahar" ( ), usually rendered "river," was evidently used also for "canal" (= Babylonian...
CHEDORLAOMER – Biblical Data: Name of a king of Elam (Gen. xiv. 1), who made conquests as far west as Canaan and exercised supremacy over its southeastern part. After paying tribute to him for twelve years, the five local kings, or princes,...
CHELOD – A name occurring in Judith i. 6b, and designating apparently the Chaldeans. In place of the rendering of the A. V., "many nations of the sons of Chelod assembled themselves to battle in the plain of Arioch in the days of...
CHEMOSH – The national god of the Moabites. He became angry with his people and permitted them to become the vassals of Israel; his anger passed, he commanded Mesha to fight against Israel, and Moabitish independence was reestablished...
CHIUN – A word occurring in connection with "Siccuth" in Amos v. 26. Scholars have long been puzzled to know whether in this passage they are common nouns or proper names. "Siccuth" is probably the Assyrian "Sakkut" (Schrader, "K. A....
CHUSHAN-RISHATHAIM (R. V., Cushanrishathaim) – Biblical Data: A king of Mesopotamia, or, more specifically, of Aram-naharaim ("Aram of the two rivers"), probably a kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (see Aram). He was the first of the oppressors of Israel in the time of the...
CLAY – A word used in the Old Testament to denote several kinds of soil, including the clays of the East as well as the loam of the Nile valley. Clay, in its technical sense, is "a mixture of decomposed minerals of various kinds....
COPPER – The first common metal to come into use, as it is easily obtained and readily worked. Burial-places in which utensils, weapons, etc., of iron are found are ascribed to a later period than are those containing copper or bronze...
CORIANDER – An umbelliferous plant with white blossoms, which is peculiar to the Mediterranean district (Coriandrum sativum). It is widely cultivated in the East, and grows wild in Egypt and Palestine. It is especially abundant in the...
CORN – Indicates Various Grains. The seeds of cereal plants. (1) Barley ("se'orah"), which was and still is the most common grain of Palestine, is the ordinary food of horses, asses, and oxen. (2) Beans ("pol") were also in very...
COTTON – This word does not occur in the A. V., but express mention is made of the material in Esth. i. 6, where it is stated that in the court of the king's palace-garden were "white, green, and blue hangings." The Hebrew word here...
DEBIR – 1. A king of Eglon referred to in Josh. x. 3 et seq. The Septuagint reads Δαβὶν. Debir was one of the five kings who joined Adonizedek, King of Jerusalem, against the city of Gibeon. In the battle which ensued, according to the...