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Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, Congregation Agudat Achim, Peoria, Ill.

Contributions:
ṬEBUL YOM – Name of a treatise in the Mishnah and in the Tosefta; in most editions of the Mishnah it is tenth in the order Ṭohorot. According to Lev. xv. 5 et seq., one who takes the prescribed bath still remains unclean until sunset. The...
TEMURAH – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Babylonian Talmud mainly concerned with the regulations in Lev. xxvii. 10, 33 regarding the exchange of consecrated things. In most editions of the Mishnah this treatise is the sixth in the...
TEMURAH, MIDRASH – Ethical haggadic work consisting of three chapters. Its tendency is to prove that changes and differences are necessary to the world's welfare, and that earthly contrasts—as wealth and poverty, beauty and ugliness—serve to...
TERUMOT – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Palestinian Talmud. There were two kinds of heave-offerings or gifts to the priest: one was theregular heave-offering, known also as the "great heave-offering" ("terumah gedolah"), which the...
THEOLOGY – The science that treats of God and of His relation to the world in general and to man in particular; in a less restricted sense, the didactic representation of the contents and essence of a religion. Jewish theology, therefore,...
ṬOHOROT – 1. Name of the sixth and last order in the Mishnah and the Tosefta. "Ṭohorot" is a euphemism for uncleanness, all the treatises of this order dealing with the laws governing impurity. The order comprises twelve treatises, which,...
TOSEFTA – Name of a collection of baraitot which treat in a more complete form than does the Mishnah the subject of traditional law. In tannaitic literature old halakot are often amplified by explanatory notes and additions. Such...
TRADITIONS – Doctrines and sayings transmitted from father to son by word of mouth, and thus preserved among the people. Such traditions constitute a large part of Jewish oral teachings (see Oral Law); and many halakic doctrines seek to...
VOWS – Promises made under religious sanction. In Talmudic law distinction is made between two principal kinds of vows: (1) A voluntary promise to bring a sacrifice which he who makes the vow is not otherwise in duty bound to bring; or...
WAYIḲRA RABBAH – Haggadic midrash to Leviticus. Under the name "Wayiḳra Rabbah" this midrash is first referred to by Nathan, in his " 'Aruk," s. v. , , and in several other passages, as well as by Rashi in his commentaries on Gen. xlvi. 26, Ex....
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES – Derived from Babylonia. — Biblical Data: While the references in the Old Testament are sufficient for a general knowledge of the ancient Hebrew system of weights and measures, and of the mutual relations of the several units,...
WEIL, JACOB – German rabbi and Talmudist; flourished during the first half of the fifteenth century. Of his life no details are known, but, according to Grätz, he died before 1456. He was one of the foremost pupils of Jacob Mölln (MaHaRIL),...
WEIL, NETHANEEL – Rabbi and Talmudist; born at Stühlingen in 1687; died at Rostadt May 7, 1769; son of Naphtali Hirsch Weil. His mother took him to Fürth when he was ten years old, and soon afterward to Prague, where his father's brother, Lippman...
YADAYIM – Treatise of the Mishnah and the Tosefta, dealing with the uncleanness of the hands and their ablution. It stands eleventh in the order Ṭohorot in most editions of the Mishnah, and is divided into four chapters, containing...
YALḲUT – Contents. A haggadic compilation on the books of the Old Testament. From such older haggadot as were accessible to him, the author collected various interpretations and explanations of Biblical passages, and arranged these...
YOMA – A treatise in the Mishnah, in the Tosefta, and in both Talmudim, treating of the divineservice on the Day of Atonement, of the fasting ceremony on that day, and of other regulations pertaining to the occasion. In the Tosefta...
YUDAN – Relations with Ze'era. Palestinian amora of the fourth century. His name does not occur in the Babylonian Talmud, whereas it is often mentioned in the older Palestinian midrashim, as well as in the Jerusalem Talmud, where he is...
YUDAN BEN ISHMAEL – Palestinian amora of the third century; probably a brother of Yannai ben Ishmael. He solved the question whether instructors in the Law should be paid for their services, by declaring that they ought to be remunerated for the...
YUDAN BEN MANASSEH – Palestinian amora of the third century. One of his halakic maxims has been preserved in the Jerusalem Talmud (Kil. 27a), and the Babylonian Talmud contains two haggadic sayings by him, both based on the interpretation of a...
YUDAN BEN SIMEON – Palestinian amora of the third century; a contemporary of Johanan, who in his name transmits a ruling relating to the law of inheritance, as well as a discussion which took place between them (B. B. 114b-115a). Reference is...
ZEBAḤIM – Treatise in the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the Babylonian Talmud, dealing mainly with the laws and regulations to be observed in making animal offerings. In the Tosefta this treatise is called "Ḳorbanot" (Sacrifices), while its...
ZE'ERA – Love of Holy Land. Palestinian amora of the third generation; born in Babylonia, where he spent his early youth. He was a pupil of Ḥisda (Ber. 49a), of Huna (ib.), and of Judah b. Ezekiel in Pumbedita. He associated also with...
ZERA'IM – The first order of the Mishnah, containing eleven treatises: Berakot, Pe'ah, Demai, Kil'ayim, Shebi'it, Terumot, Ma'aserot, Ma'aser Sheni, Ḥallah, 'Orlah, and Bikkurim. With the exception of the first, all these treatises, as is...
ZERIKA – Palestinian amora of the fourth century; a pupil of Eleazar, whose halakic maxims he transmitted (Soṭah 4b; Zeb. 93b; Men. 7b, 86b), and of Ammi (see Ḥul. 46a). He was a colleague of Abba, with whom he decided the controversy of...
ZUGOT – Name given to the leading teachers of the Law in the time preceding the Tannaim. The period of the Zugot begins with Jose b. Joezer and ends with Hillel. The name "Zugot" (comp. Latin "duumviri") was given to these teachers...