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Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, Congregation Agudat Achim, Peoria, Ill.

Contributions:
ME'ILAH – Treatise of Seder Ḳodashim in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and the Babylonian Talmud. In the Mishnaic order this treatise is the eighth, and contains six chapters comprising thirty-eight paragraphs in all. It deals chiefly with the...
MEKILTA – First Mention. The halakic midrash to Exodus. The name "Mekilta," which corresponds to the Hebrew "middah" (= "measure," "rule"), was given to this midrash because the Scriptural comments and explanations of the Law which it...
MEKILTA DE-RABBI SHIM'ON – Halakic midrash on Exodus from the school of R. Akiba. No midrash of this name is mentioned in Talmudic literature; but medieval authors refer to one which they call either "Mekilta de-R. Simeon b. Yoḥai," or "Mekilta Aḥrita...
MEKILTA LE-SEFER DEBARIM – A halakic midrash to Deuteronomy from the school of Rabbi Ishmael. No midrash by this name is mentioned in Talmudic literature, nor do the medieval authors refer to such a work. Although Maimonides says in his introduction to...
MELAMMED – A term which in Biblical times denoted a teacher or instructor in general (e.g., in Ps. cxix. 99 and Prov. v. 13), but which in the Talmudic period was applied especially to a teacher of children, and was almost invariably...
MENAḤOT – Treatise in the Mishnah, in the Tosefta, and in the Babylonian Talmud. It discusses chiefly the more precise details of the regulations governing the different kinds of meat-offering mentioned in Lev. ii. 5, 11-13; vi. 7-11;...
MESHULLAM BEN JONAH – Physician and translator of the thirteenth century. It appears that he lived in southern France. He occupied himself with medicine merely as a study, and seems never to have practised. At the desire of a friend named Ḥafeẓ or...
MIDDOT – Treatise in the Mishnah; tenth in the order Ḳodashim. It deals with the dimensions and the arrangement of the Temple, and is divided into five chapters containing thirty-four paragraphs in all.Ch. i.: The night-watches in the...
MIDDOT, SHELOSH-'ESREH – Division. The thirteen forms of mercy, enumerated in Ex. xxxiv. 6-7, whereby God rules the world. According to the explanation of Maimonides ("Moreh Nebukim," i. 52), which is confirmed by the Sifre (Deut. 49 [ed. Friedmann, p....
MIDRASH HALAKAH – The Term. Strictly speaking, the verification of the traditionally received Halakah by identifying its sources in the Bible and by interpreting these Scriptural passages as proofs of its authenticity. The term is applied also to...
MIGGO – An Aramaic word contracted from "min gaw" (= "from within"), meaning to proceed from the content of a sentence or circumstance, and designating originally a conclusion based on analogy. It is used in this sense in B. M. 5b. If...
MIḲWA'OT – Treatise in the Mishnah and the Tosefta in the order Ṭohorot. The legal code of the Pentateuch prescribes a bath for lepers (Lev. xiv. 9) and for persons suffering from certain other diseases (ib. xv.). The bath, according to...
MIRIAM – Biblical Data: Prophetess; daughter of Amram and sister of Moses and Aaron (I Chron. vi. 3; Ex. xv. 20; Num. xxvi. 59). When Moses was left at the river Miriam watched from a distance until Pharaoh's daughter took him up,...
MIRIAM – Biblical Data: Prophetess; daughter of Amram and sister of Moses and Aaron (I Chron. vi. 3; Ex. xv. 20; Num. xxvi. 59). When Moses was left at the river Miriam watched from a distance until Pharaoh's daughter took him up,...
MISHNAH – A noun formed from the verb "shanah," which has the same meaning as the Aramaic "matnita," derived from "teni" or "tena." The verb "shanah," which originally meant "to repeat," acquired in post-Biblical Hebrew the special force...
MNEMONICS – Certain sentences, words, or letters used to assist the memory. Such aids are employed in the Mishnah, in both Talmuds, and in the Masorah, as well as by the Geonim and by the teachers of the Law during the Middle Ages. In this...
MO'ED – Name of an order of the Mishnah and the Tosefta both in Babli and in Yerushalmi. The name "Mo'ed," which is mentioned in the Talmud itself (Suk. 4b), is applied to this order because all the treatises belonging to it contain...
MO'ED ḲAṬAN – Treatise in the Mishnah, in the Tosefta, and in the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It deals principally with the regulations concerning the semi-feasts, or intermediary festivals, which are termed "mo'ed" and are the days...
MORDECAI HA-KOHEN OF SAFED – Cabalist and scholar; flourished in the second half of the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of the famous cabalist Israel de Curiel, and a contemporary of R. Joseph di Trani. The latter mentions him in his responsa (ii., No....
MORDECAI B. SHABBETHAI – Liturgical poet of the thirteenth century; a native either of Italy or of Greece. His penitential prayers ("seliḥot"), which are remarkable both for their form and for their clear, flowing language, have been incorporated into...
MORENU – Term used since the middle of the fourteenth century as a title for rabbis and Talmudists; and the abbreviation (= ) was placed before the name of the scholar in question. Thus the abbreviation ("MaHaRaM") stands for "Morenu...
MOSES – Biblical Data: The birth of Moses occurred at a time when Pharaoh had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew captives should be thrown into the Nile (Ex. ii.; comp. i.). Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a...
MOSES B. BENJAMIN HA-SOFER OF ROME – Liturgical poet of the twelfth century; he wrote several piyyuṭim for the Passover and the Feast of Weeks, as well as for some of the special Sabbaths. His piyyuṭim differ in style and composition from those of preceding...
MOSES BOTAREL – Spanish scholar; lived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. He was a pupil of Jacob Sefardi (the Spaniard), who instructed him in the Cabala. He studied also medicine and philosophy; the latter he regarded as a divine...
MOSES BOTAREL FARISSOL – Astronomer and mathematician of the second half of the fifteenth century. He wrote a work on the calendar entitled "Meleket ha-Ḳebi'ah," and compiled, under the title "Nofet Ẓufim," calendric tables. Both these works, in...