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Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, Congregation Agudat Achim, Peoria, Ill.

Contributions:
NIEDERLÄNDER, ABRAHAM BEN EPHRAIM – Austrian mathematician of the sixteenth century; scribe of R. Judah Löw ben Bezaleel (MaHaRaL) of Prague. He was the author of a mathematical work entitled "Berit Abraham" (Prague, 1609), which was based for the most part on...
NISSIM B. REUBEN GERONDI – Physician, astronomer, and halakist; flourished at Barcelona about 1340 to 1380. He had much to suffer at the hands of certain wealthy and powerful Jews of his community, who even slandered him before the government (Isaac b....
NITTAI OF ARBELA – Vice-president of the Sanhedrin under the nasi Joshua b. Peraḥyah at the time of John Hyrcanus. In Yer. Ḥag. ii. 76d he is called Mattai of Arbela. Arbela was a city of Galilee not far from Tiberias. No halakot of his are...
NOMISM – That religious tendency which aims at the control of both social and individual life by legalism, making the law the supreme norm. The term "nomism" or "legalism" is sometimes used to imply an externalizing tendency of religion...
OBADIAH – The name of thirteen different persons mentioned in the Bible. As vocalized in the Masoretic text, it means "worshiper of Yhwh." 1. Head steward to King Ahab of Israel. At the time of the persecution of the prophets of Yhwh by...
OBED-EDOM – 1. Biblical Data: A Gittite to whose house the Ark was taken when removed from that of Abinadab in Gibeah. It remained with Obed-edom three months before it was carried to the City of David; and God "blessed Obededom and all his...
OG – Biblical Data: Amorite king of Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth and was conquered by Moses and Israel in the battle of Edrei (Num. xxi. 33), sixty fortified cities, with high walls, gates, and bars, comprising the region of...
OHALOT – Treatise in the Mishnah and the Tosefta dealing with defilement through a dead human body, through the dead body of an animal, or through contact with one that is diseased; based on Num. xix. 14-16. In the Tosefta it is called...
ONIAS (ḤONI) HA-ME'AGGEL – Teacher and miracle-worker; lived in the first century B.C. Tradition declares him to have been a descendant of Moses (Tan., Wayera, ed. Buber, p. 22). He was an Essene, stood in high repute, and was respected on account of his...
ORAL LAW – Meaning. Term used to denote the laws and statutes which, in addition to the Pentateuch, God gave to Moses. According to the rabbinical interpretation of Ex. xxxiv. 27, the words indicate that besides the written law— —God gave...
ORDINATION – Appointment and solemn public dedication to the office of judge and teacher of the Law and to all the functions associated therewith. The custom of ordination is a very ancient one; Joshua was ordained by Moses, who thereby...
ORḤOT ẒADDIḲIM – Book on ethics written in Germany in the fifteenth century, entitled "Sefer ha-Middot" by the author, but called "Orḥot Ẓaddiḳim" by a later copyist. Under this title a Judæo-German translation, from which the last chapter and...
'ORLAH – Name of a treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Yerushalmi, devoted to a consideration of the law, found in Lev. xix. 23-25, which ordains that the fruit of a newly planted tree shall be regarded as "'orlah" (A. V....
ORNSTEIN, JACOB MESHULLAM – Galician rabbinical authority; died at Lemberg 1839. He was the son of the Lemberg rabbi Mordecai Zeeb Ornstein. Jacob Meshullam at the death of his father was too young to succeed him in the Lemberg rabbinate; and accordingly...
ORPAH – A Moabitess; daughter-in-law of Naomi, and wife of Mahlon. After the death of her husband, Orpah and her sister-in-law Ruth wished to go to Judea with Naomi. She was persuaded, however, by Naomi to return to her people and to...
PALṬOI B. ABAYI – Gaon of Pumbedita from 842 to 858. He was the first of a series of prominent geonim at that academy, the influence of which he extended to such a degree that the exilarch was obliged to go to Pumbedita if he wished to convene a...
PAPA – Babylonian amora of the fifth generation; born about 300; died 375; pupil of Raba and Abaye. After the death of his teachers he founded a school at Neres, a city near Sura, in which he officiated as "resh metibta," his friend...
PAPPOS B. JUDAH – Haggadist of the first half of the second century; contemporary and fellow prisoner of Akiba. At the time of the persecutions by Hadrian, when it was forbidden to study the Torah, Akiba imperiled his life in order to hold...
PARABLE – A short religious allegory. That the Hebrew designation for "parable" is "mashal" (comp. David Ḳimḥi's commentary on II Sam. xii. 1-4 and on Isa. v. 1-6) is confirmed by the fact that in the New Testament the Syriac "matla,"...
PARAH – Name of a treatise in the Mishnah and the Tosefta, included in the order Ṭohorot. The Pentateuchal law (Num. xix.) decrees that a red heifer, "wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke," shall be burned and her ashes...
PASSOVER SACRIFICE – The sacrifice which the Israelites offered at the command of God during the night before the Exodus from Egypt, and which they ate with special ceremonies according to divine direction. The blood of this sacrifice sprinkled on...
PASUḲ – Passive participle of the Aramaic word "pesaḳ" (to cut off), meaning a section or division. It is, however, used almost exclusively to denote a Bible verse, as, for example, in Giṭ. 56a: "Tell me thy Bible verse [pasuḳ]." The...
PE'AH – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the Palestinian Talmud, defining the laws set forth in Lev. xix. 9, 10, xxiii. 22, and Deut. xxiv. 19-22 which relate to the portion of the harvest to be given to the poor, and...
PEDAT B. ELEAZAR – Palestinian amora of the fourth generation (first half of the fourth century). He was his father's pupil (Ber. 77b; M. Ḳ. 20a) and the assistant lecturer ("amora") of R. Assi. If the latter asked him to repeat any of his...
PERAḤYAH B. NISSIM – Tosafist of the second half of the thirteenth century; the author of novellæ on certain Talmudic treatises, some of whichwere reprinted by Mas'ud Ḥai Roḳeaḥ in his "Ma'aseh Roḳeaḥ" (Venice, 1752). Peraḥyah's commentary on the...