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Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D.

(Office Editor), Rabbi, Congregation Agudat Achim, Peoria, Ill.

Contributions:
SARSINO (SARCINO), JACOB B. JOSEPH – Italian rabbi of the seventeenth century; pupil of R. Ẓebi Hirsch b. Isaac in Cracow. He was rabbi in Venice, and labored as such together with Leon of Modena. He corrected several books which were printed in Venice, and...
SAUL – Biblical Data: The first king of all Israel. He was the son of Kish, "a Benjamite, a mighty man of valor" (I Sam. ix. 1). For many years Israel had been ruled by judges, and had suffered many and severe sorrows at the hands of...
SAUL, ABBA – Tanna of the third generation. In Ab. R. N. xxix. mention is made of an Abba Saul b. Nanos whom Lewy ("Ueber Einige Fragmente aus der Mischnah des Abba Saul," in "Berichte über die Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums...
SAUL, ABBA, B. BAṬNIT – Tanna of the second and first centuries B.C. According to Derenbourg, his mother was a Batanian proselyte, whence he derived his name "ben Baṭnit"; it appears from Ned. 23a, however, that "Baṭnit" is a masculine proper name....
SEMAḤOT – SEPHARDIC VERSICLE MELODY Euphemistic name of the treatise known as "Ebel Rabbati," one of the so-called small or later treatises which in the editions of the Babylonian Talmud are placed after the fourth order, Neziḳin; it...
SEMIKAH – In Sacrifices. A ceremony obligatory on one who offered an animal sacrifice. The regulations governing its observance were as follows: The owner of the sacrificial victim (Sifra, Wayiḳra, v. [ed. Weiss, 6d-7a]) was required to...
SENIOR, PHOEBUS BEN JACOB ABIGDOR – Talmudic scholar and author; lived in thefirst half of the eighteenth century. He wrote a commentary on the six orders of the Mishnah, entitled "Melo Kaf Naḥat," in which he collected explanations from Rashi, Maimonides,...
SHABBAT – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds; devoted chiefly to rules and regulations for the Sabbath. The Scriptural passages that treat of the Sabbath and of the laws for its observance, thus forming the exegetical...
SHAMḤAZAI – Name of a fallen angel. According to Targ. pseudo-Jonathan on Gen. vi. 4, "nefilim" (A. V. "giants") denotes the two angels Shamḥazai and his companion Uzzael orAzael, who fell from heaven and dwelt on earth "in those days,"...
SHAMMAI – Scholar of the first century B.C. He was the most eminent contemporary and the halakic opponent of Hillel, and is almost invariably mentioned along with him. After Menahem the Essene had resigned the office of vice-president...
SHEBI'IT – Contents. Treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Palestinian Talmud. It belongs to the order Zera'im, in which it stands fifth, and is divided into ten chapters, containing eighty-nine paragraphs in all. According to the Law in...
SHEBU'OT – Treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds, dealing chiefly with the various forms of the oath. In most of the editions it is the sixth treatise of the order Neziḳin, and is divided into eight chapters, containing...
SHE'ELOT U-TESHUBOT – The Hebrew designation for the "responsa prudentium," connoting the written decisions and rulings given by eminent rabbis, teachers, or heads of academies to questions addressed to them in writing. These responsa constitute a...
SHEḲALIM – Treatise of the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the Jerusalem Talmud, dealing with the half-shekel tax which was imposed for defraying the expenses of the Temple service (comp. Ex. xxx. 12 et seq.; Neh. x. 33); also with the other...
SHELA – Babylonian teacher of the latter part of the tannaitic and the beginning of the amoraic period; head of the school ("sidra") at Nehardea (Yoma 20a; Letter of Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 28). When Abba Arika (Rab)...
SHELAH – Youngest son of Judah by the daughter of the Canaanite Shuah; born in Chezib in the shephelah of Judah. His extreme youth at the time of the death of his brother Onan was the ostensible excuse alleged by his father for the...
SHERIRA B. ḤANINA – Gaon of Pumbedita; born about 900; died about 1000 (Abraham ibn Daud, "Sefer ha-Ḳabbalah," in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 66-67). He was the descendant, both on his father's and his mother's side, of prominent families, several...
SHESHET – Relations to Rab. Babylonian amora of the third generation; colleague of R. Naḥman bar Jacob, with whom he had frequent arguments concerning questions of religious law. His teacher's name is not definitely known; but Sheshet was...
SHILA OF KEFAR TAMARTA – Palestinian amora of the third century. In Palestinian sources he is called only by his personal name, but in the Babylonian Talmud the name of his home in Judea is always added, in order to distinguish him from an older...
SHIMEI – 1. Biblical Data: Benjamite of Bahurim, son of Gera, "a man of the family of the house of Saul" (II Sam. xvi. 5-14, xix. 16-23; I Kings ii. 8-9, 36-46). He is mentioned as one of David's tormentors during his flight before...
SHIR HA-SHIRIM (CANTICLES) RABBAH – Composed in Palestine. Haggadic midrash on Canticles, quoted by Rashi under the title "Midrash Shir ha-Shirim" (commentary on Cant. iv. 1, viii. 11). It is called also Agadat Ḥazita, from its initial word "Ḥazita" (R. Nathan, in...
SIHON – Biblical Data: Amoritic king of the east-Jordan country, whose kingdom extended from the Arnon in the south to the Jabbok in the north, and from the Jordan in the west to the desert in the east (Num. xxi. 24; Judges xi. 22)....
SIHON – Biblical Data: Amoritic king of the east-Jordan country, whose kingdom extended from the Arnon in the south to the Jabbok in the north, and from the Jordan in the west to the desert in the east (Num. xxi. 24; Judges xi. 22)....
SIMEON – Tanna of the first generation; brother of Azariah and uncle of Eleazar ben Azariah. He is mentioned only once in the Mishnah, in Zeb. i. 2, where a saying of his has been preserved. He is named after his brother Azariah, who was...
SIMEON I. – Son of Hillel and father of Gamaliel I. Nothing is known of him except his name and the fact that he was the successor of Hillel as president of the Sanhedrin (Shab. 15a).W. B. J. Z. L.