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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
AARON – Biblical Data: One of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. He was the elder son of Amram and Jochebed of the tribe of Levi; Moses, the other son, being three years younger, and Miriam, their...
AARON OF CARDENA – A cabalist, about whose life little is known. He wrote a book containing "profound secrets" under the title of "Ḳarnayim" (Rays)—see Hab. iii. 4. The work was erroneously ascribed to Isaac b. Abraham b. David, surnamed "the...
AARON BEN ELIJAH, THE YOUNGER, of Nicomedia – Karaite theologian, born in Cairo about 1300; died in Constantinople in 1369. To distinguish him from Aaron ben Joseph, the elder Karaite theologian of Constantinople, he was called Aaron the Younger, or the Later. Aaron ben...
AARON BEN GERSHON ABU AL-RABI OF CATANIA – Sicilian scholar, cabalist, and astrologer; flourished between 1400 and 1450. He was a son-in-law of Don Moses Gabbai, an exile from Majorca. Aaron was the youngest of five brothers, all rabbinic scholars; the others were...
AARON BEN ḤAYYIM HA-KOHEN – Nephew of Simeon of Coucy-leChâteau and of Jacob of Corbeil; flourished about 1200. In 1227, after having compared all the copies of the French Maḥzor he could obtain, he wrote the Maḥzor, Code Uri, No. 225, to which he added a...
AARON BEN JACOB BEN DAVID HAKOHEN – French ritualist; one of a family of scholars living at Narbonne, France (not Lunel, as Conforte and others say), who was a sufferer by the expulsion of the Jews in 1306. He emigrated to Majorca, and there, some time before...
AARON OF JERUSALEM – Karaite of the eleventh century. He was acknowledged by the Rabbinites as one of the principal representatives of Karaitic learning and as a great authority on grammar and exegesis. He is quoted by Abraham ibn Ezra in the...
AARON BEN JOSEPH, THE KARAITE – Eminent teacher, philosopher, physician, and liturgical poet in Constantinople; born in Sulchat, Crimea, about 1260; died about 1320. He took a prominent part in the regeneration of Karaism by the help of philosophical elements...
AB – The Babylonian name adopted by the Jews for the fifth month of the year, corresponding to part of the modern July and part of August. It always consists of thirty days. The first day of Ab is, according to rabbinical tradition...
AB, NINTH DAY OF – The Fall of Jerusalem. Day set aside by tradition for fasting and mourning, to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Chaldeans (586 B.C.) and by the Romans (70); a movable fast falling approximately in...
AB, FIFTEENTH DAY OF – Popular festival in Judea during the time of the Second Temple, corresponding approximately to the fifteenth day of August. According to a tradition preserved in the Mishnah (Ta'anit, iv. 9, 10; Gem. pp. 26, 31), on that day, as...
ABADDON – In rabbinic and New Testament literature, the second department of Gehenna, the nether world; almost synonymous with Sheol (Midr. Konen; compare Joshua ben Levi in 'Er. 19a). In Rev. ix. 11 Abaddon is personified as the Angel of...
ABBA – In Theology: The Aramaic word for "Father," "my Father," which, together with the Greek equivalent, occurs three times in the New Testament. It is an invocation to God, expressive of a close personal or filial relation of the...
ABBA MARI BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH DON ASTRUC (En Astruc) OF LUNEL – Defender of Law and Tradition. (Graetz and others have, incorrectly, En Duran): Leader of the opposition to the rationalism of the Maimonists in the Montpellier controversy of 1303-1306; born at Lunel—hence his name, Yarḥi (from...
ABBA MARI BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH DON ASTRUC (En Astruc) OF LUNEL – Defender of Law and Tradition. (Graetz and others have, incorrectly, En Duran): Leader of the opposition to the rationalism of the Maimonists in the Montpellier controversy of 1303-1306; born at Lunel—hence his name, Yarḥi (from...
ABBAHU – Knowledge of Greek Literature. A celebrated Palestinian amora of the third amoraic generation (about 279-320), sometimes cited as R. Abbahu of Cæsarea (Ḳisrin). His rabbinic education was acquired mainly at Tiberias, in the...
AB BET DIN – 1. Title, according to some scholars, of the judge next in authority to the nasi (prince or president), and who would, accordingly, be vice-president of the Sanhedrin. On the disputed question of the relation of the Ab bet din...
ABD-AL-DAIM – Son of Abd-al-Aziz, son of Muhasan ha-Israeli, physician and descendant of a line of Jewish physicians. Abd-al-Daim flourished about 1300, and on August 30, 1316, he completed an Arabic work entitled "The Two Sciences," in two...
ABEL – Biblical Data: The younger brother of Cain and the second son of Adam and Eve. He was the first shepherd, while Cain was a tiller of the soil. The writer of Gen. iv. tells us that when the brothers came as a matter of course to...
ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH – A place-name occurring six times in the Old Testament. The question whether Abel was one place and Beth-maachah another, or whether Abel-bethmaachah must be regarded as a single locality, is open to doubt. The name occurs in...
ABELE ZION – According to Jost and others, those Karaites who, after the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, left the Holy City, and settling in Constantinople adopted this name in memory of their beloved former home. This is denied by...
ABERLE (ABRIL), SOLOMON B. ABRAHAM – Author of "Binyan Shelomoh" (The Structure of Solomon), homilies on the Pentateuch, published at Shklov in Posen, 1789 (see Benjacob, "Oẓar ha-Sefarim," p. 81). K.
ABERLES, ISAAC B. ABRAHAM COHEN ẒEDEḲ OF CRACOW – Author of "Sefer Toledot Yiẓḥaḳ" (The Generation of Isaac), homilies on the Pentateuch, only the first part of which was published by his son Solomon, at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, in 1691 (see Benjacob, "Oẓar ha-Sefarim," p....
ABIBAS – A mythical son of R. Gamaliel, the teacher of Paul, concerning whom a Christian legend existed that he and his father were baptized, by John and Peter. Lucianus, bishop of Jerusalem in the year 415, wrote that Gamaliel appeared...
ABIN – An eminent cabalist of Le Mans (about 1040), a descendant of R. Simon of Le Mans, and grandfather of R. Simon the Great, the contemporary of R. Gershom ben Judah of Metz.Bibliography: Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, No. 25 and note;...