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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
BONAFOS, MENAHEM BEN ABRAHAM – French philosopher; flourished at the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was the author of a work entitled "Sefer ha-Gedarim" (Book of the Definitions), or, as it is also called, "Miklal...
BOOK OF LIFE – Traditional View: The book, or muster-roll, of God in which all the worthy are recorded for life. God has such a book, and to be blotted out of it signifies death (Ex. xxxii. 32, 33).It is with reference to the Book of Life that...
BOOK OF LIFE – Traditional View: The book, or muster-roll, of God in which all the worthy are recorded for life. God has such a book, and to be blotted out of it signifies death (Ex. xxxii. 32, 33).It is with reference to the Book of Life that...
BORGER – Cabalist; lived at Zülz, Prussia, in the seventeenth century; corrector of the press in the printing-house of Shabbethai Bass at Dyhernfurth. He published (Amsterdam, 1688), with additions of his own, the cabalistic commentaries...
BOULÉ – Court of justice, or Sanhedrin; also the seat of the senate (Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 2; hence also , βουλευτής = "senator"; Giṭ. 37a; Sem. viii., "the boulés or senates of Judea"). According to Yer. Ned. iii. 2; Shab. iii. 8;...
BOZZOLO, ḤAYYIM OBADIAH BEN JACOB OBADIAH DI – Talmudist and cabalist; lived at Salonica in the middle of the sixteenth century; probably a native of Bozzolo in Italy, wherefore Conforte ("Ḳore ha-Dorot," ed. Cassel, p. 39a) calls him "Di Bozzolo," while Nepi-Ghirondi...
BRANDES, MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER – German Talmudist; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the eighteenth century. Engaged by the Jewish community as "porsher" ( , one who extracts from a slaughtered beast those sinews that are proscribed as food), he...
BRAZEN SERPENT – Biblical Data: An image set up by Moses which is said to have healed those who looked upon it. When the people of Israel, near the close of the desert wanderings, were marching southward to go around Edom to the east of...
BREAD – Preparation of Bread. Bread was the principal article of food among the Hebrews, while meat, vegetables, or liquids served only to supplement the meal (Gen. xxv. 34, xxvii. 17; Ruth ii. 14; I Sam. xxviii. 24; Gen. xviii. 7)....
BREMEN – Free city of the German empire; remarkable as one of the places where few Jews have ever dwelt. A baptized Jew, Paulus, is said to have taught alchemy there to Archbishop Adalbert about the middle of the eleventh century....
BRIDE – In Mystic Lore: The allegorical use of the name "Bride" for "Israel" is based upon Hosea ii. 19-20: "I will betroth thee forever," and, in conjunction with Ezek. xvi. 8, gave rise to the allegorical interpretation of the Song of...
BROTHER – Son of the same father and mother (or of either), but principally son of the same father and mother (see Gen. xlii. 3, 4, 5, 13; xliv. 11, 23, 29; II Sam. xiii. 4 et seq.; Judges ix. 3). The brother was expected to give his...
BROTHERLY LOVE – A Biblical Command. The love for one's fellow-man as a brother. The expression is taken from the Greek word ΦιλαδελΦία("love of brothers"), which trait distinguished the early Christian communities. Rom. xii. 10; I Thess. iv. 9;...
BURIAL – Placing the corpse in the earth or in caves of the rock, the chief modes adhered to by the Jewish people of disposing of the dead (Gen. xxiii. 19, xxv. 9, xxxv. 8, xlix. 29 et seq.; Deut. xxxiv. 6; Josh. xxiv. 30; Judges viii....
BURIAL SOCIETY – Organization for providing proper burial rites. There is hardly a congregation of Jews in the world without an association specially organized for the following purposes: to conduct the burial service without charge; to be...
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
BUZAGLIO, BUZAGLI – Cabalist; born in Morocco (where his father was "rosh yeshibah") at the beginning of the eighteenth century; died in 1780. He was a disciple of the cabalist Abraham Azulai, rabbi of Morocco, and filled the position of dayyan....
CABALA – Name and Origin (Hebrew form Ḳabbalah [ , from = "to receive"; literally, "the received or traditional lore"]): The specific term for the esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as...
CABALA – Name and Origin (Hebrew form Ḳabbalah [ , from = "to receive"; literally, "the received or traditional lore"]): The specific term for the esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as...
CABALA – Name and Origin (Hebrew form Ḳabbalah [ , from = "to receive"; literally, "the received or traditional lore"]): The specific term for the esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as...
CÆSAR, CAIUS JULIUS – Roman dictator, consul, and conqueror; born July 12, 100 B.C. (according to Mommsen, 102 B.C.); assassinated March 15, 44 B.C. Cæsar's attitude toward the Jews is manifest from the many enactments issued in their favor by him...
CAGLIARI – Capital of the island of Sardinia. It had a Jewish community in early times. When a Christianized Jew named Peter placed images of saints in the synagogue of that city on Easter Monday, the day following his baptism, to the...
CAIN – 1. Biblical Data: First-born of Adam and Eve, named "Cain" ("Ḳayin") because "gotten" (root, "ḳanah") "with the help of Yhwh." He became a tiller of the ground, and made an offering of its fruits which Yhwh did not accept,...
CAIN – 1. Biblical Data: First-born of Adam and Eve, named "Cain" ("Ḳayin") because "gotten" (root, "ḳanah") "with the help of Yhwh." He became a tiller of the ground, and made an offering of its fruits which Yhwh did not accept,...
CAIN – 1. Biblical Data: First-born of Adam and Eve, named "Cain" ("Ḳayin") because "gotten" (root, "ḳanah") "with the help of Yhwh." He became a tiller of the ground, and made an offering of its fruits which Yhwh did not accept,...