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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
CALUMNY – Evil-speaking; a sin regarded with intense aversion both in the Bible and in rabbinical literature. The technical term for it in the latter is (leshon hara', "the evil tongue"). In the Bible the equivalent words are: , meaning...
CANTHERAS – Surname of Simon, the son of Boethus, the high priest, according to Josephus "Ant." xix. 6, §§ 2, 4; compare ib. 8, § 1, where Elioneus, son of Cantheras, is mentioned as having also been appointed high priest by King Agrippa...
CAPER-BERRY – The feminine "abiyyonah" does not express "desire," but "the desiring thing," sc. "soul" [so Ḳimḥi]. The Septuagint, Vulgate, Peshiṭta, and Aquila translate by κάππαρις, "caper-berry," which traditional translation is confirmed...
CAPERNAUM – Small town by the Lake of Gennesaret, mentioned in the Gospels as the home of Jesus, where he resided after his rejection by his Nazareth townsmen (Matt. iv. 13, viii. 5-17, ix. 1, xi. 23, xvii. 24; Mark i. 21; Luke vii. 1 et...
CARDINAL VIRTUES – Virtues regarded as fundamental, and under which, as heads, all others may be arranged. The term "cardinal virtues" is first used by Ambrose to denote that group of four virtues which became familiar through the writings of...
CARDINAL VIRTUES – Virtues regarded as fundamental, and under which, as heads, all others may be arranged. The term "cardinal virtues" is first used by Ambrose to denote that group of four virtues which became familiar through the writings of...
CATECHISMS – Manuals for religious instruction. The name as well as the form of Jewish catechisms has been adopted from the Christian Church in modern times in connection with a more systematized religious instruction. Catechesis as a term...
CATEGORY – A term introduced by Aristotle into the philosophical vocabulary, signifying "attribute," "predicate." According to him every word containedin a proposition belongs to one of the following ten categories: substance, quantity,...
CELIBACY – Deliberate renunciation of marriage. In the Old Testament there is no direct reference to the subject. The prophet Jeremiah was a celibate (Jer. xvi. 2). He seems to have regarded it as futile to beget offspring doomed to death...
CEMETERY – A place for the burial of the dead. The word "cemetery" is derived from the Greek κομιητήριον, "the place where the dead sleep" (from κοιμάω ("to sleep"), used of the dead in I Kings xi. 43, LXX.; II Macc. xii. 45; Ecclus....
CENTO – City of 8,000 inhabitants in the province of Ferrara, central Italy. If the statement is correct that the Ha-Me'ati ( ), a family of translators, derived their name from their native place, Cento ( , "a hundred" = cento), there...
CEREMONIES AND THE CEREMONIAL LAW – Symbolic rites and observances, expressive of certain thoughts or sentiments. As social life demands forms of etiquette (see Greetings), so every religous system has its peculiar ceremonies indicative of its own particular...
CESENA – City of the Pontifical States. In early times a Jewish community existed here, of which the tosafist Eliezer is mentioned in the thirteenth century. The "payyeṭan" Moses de Rossi and the exegete Obadiah Sforno were born in the...
CHAMPAGNE – A former province of France, now known as the departments of Marne, Haute-Marne, Aube, and Ardennes, with part of Seine-et-Marne, Yonne, Aisne, and Meuse. Jews settled in Champagne as early as the Gallo-Roman epoch. They...
CHARITY AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS – The Lord's Share. —Ancient and Medieval Times. Charity is kindness shown to the needy; Hebrew, "ẓedaḳah"="righteousness" (Deut. xxiv. 13; Isa. xxxii. 17; Prov. xiv. 34; Ps. cvi. 3; Dan. iv. 24); "gemilut ḥesed" or "gemilut...
CHASTITY – Purity in regard to the relations of sex, implied in the commandment, "Ye shall be holy: for I the Lord your God am holy" (Lev. xix. 2). The ancient Semitic religions gave a prominent place to the adoration of those powers in...
CHINA – The southeastern and main division of the Chinese empire. The subject of the Jews in China is here treated in two sections: I. Their history; II. Their religious customs, etc.I. History: Whether China was known to Biblical...
CHINA – The southeastern and main division of the Chinese empire. The subject of the Jews in China is here treated in two sections: I. Their history; II. Their religious customs, etc.I. History: Whether China was known to Biblical...
CHINA – The southeastern and main division of the Chinese empire. The subject of the Jews in China is here treated in two sections: I. Their history; II. Their religious customs, etc.I. History: Whether China was known to Biblical...
CHOIR – A collection of singers with trained voices who take part in divine service and who are separated from the congregation. The first choir mentioned in the Bible is the one organized by the Levites for the Temple service, to be...
CHOIR – A collection of singers with trained voices who take part in divine service and who are separated from the congregation. The first choir mentioned in the Bible is the one organized by the Levites for the Temple service, to be...
CHOSEN PEOPLE – Biblical Data: Name for the Jewish people expressive of the idea of their having been chosen by God to fulfil the mission of proclaiming His truth among all the nations. This choice does not imply a superior claim, but a...
CHOSROES (KHOSRU) II. PARWIZ – King of Persia from 591 to 628. Chosroes, on the plea of avenging the death of his father-in-law, the Byzantine emperor Maurice (Mauritius), who had been murdered by the usurper Phocas (602), invaded Asia Minor and Syria at the...
CHRIST – Septuagint translation of Hebrew "Mashiaḥ" ("Messiah"=The Anointed),applied by Christians exclusively to Jesus as the Messiah (see Jesus of Nazareth and Messiah).J.K.
CHRISTIAN – A word denoting a follower of Jesus as the Messiah or Christ. It originated, according to Acts xi. 26, in Antioch, the Syrian capital, where, shortly after the failure of the Hellenistic movement in Jerusalem (ib. viii. 1, xi....