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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
CHRISTIANITY IN ITS RELATION TO JUDAISM – Christianity is the system of religious truth based upon the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the expected Messiah, or Christ, and that in him all the hopes and prophecies of Israel concerning the future have been fulfilled....
CHRYSOSTOMUS, JOANNES – Patriarch of Constantinople, one of the most celebrated of the Church Fathers, and the most eminent orator of the early Christian period; born in 347 at Antioch; died Sept. 14, 407, near Comana, in Pontus. Chrysostom originally...
CIRCUMCISION – Biblical Data: A religious rite performed on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth; also on their slaves, whether born in the house or not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as "a token of the...
CLEMENTINA – A series of kindred works of a Judæo-Christian sect of the second century, of which only the Homilies, the Recognitions, and the Epitomes have been preserved. The Homilies, published first in 1853, present in the form of...
CLOUD – Biblical Data: The Hebrew equivalents for "cloud" are: (1) "'Anan," (Gen. ix. 13, 14; Ex. xiii., passim), which occurs once in the feminineform "'ananah" (Job iii. 5), and once in the Aramaic form (Dan. vii. 13). (2) "'Ab" is...
COFFIN – The custom of using coffins is probably borrowed from the Egyptians. It is recorded of Joseph that he was "put in a coffin in Egypt" (Gen. 1. 26). Tradition says it was of metal (Soṭah 13a). Both the Ark of the Covenant and the...
COHEN, NAPHTALI – Russo-German rabbi and cabalist; born in 1649 at Ostrowo in the Ukraine; died at Constantinople Dec. 20, 1718. He belonged to a family of rabbis in Ostrowo, whither his father, Isaac Cohen, had fled during the Cossack war. In...
COMMANDMENT – The rendering in the English Bible versions of the Hebrew , which, in its technical sense, is used in the Bible of a commandment given either by God or by man (I Kings ii. 43). According to the critical schools, it is a word of...
COMMANDMENTS, THE 613 – That the law of Moses contains 613 commandments is stated by R. Simlai, a Palestinian haggadist, who says (Mak. 23b): "Six hundred and thirteen commandments were revealed to Moses; 365 being prohibitions equal in number to the...
COMPASSION – Sorrow and pity for one in distress, creating a desire to relieve, a feeling ascribed alike to man and God; in Biblical Hebrew, ("riḥam," from "reḥem," the mother, womb), "to pity" or "to show mercy" in view of the sufferer's...
CONFERENCES, RABBINICAL – Assemblies of rabbis to determine common courses of action or common principles of faith. Rabbinical conferences are a late phenomenon in the history of Judaism, dating, as they do, only from the fourth decade of the nineteenth...
CONFESSION OF SIN – Biblical Data: The Scriptures repeatedly prescribe confession of sin as a means to expiation and atonement. "It shall be that when he is guilty of any one of these things, he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing"...
CONFIRMATION, THE RITE OF – Earliest Confirmations. Solemn form of initiation of the Jewish youth into their ancestral faith. The rite is mentioned officially for the first time in an ordinance issued by the Jewish consistory of the kingdom of Westphalia...
CONFIRMATION, THE RITE OF – Earliest Confirmations. Solemn form of initiation of the Jewish youth into their ancestral faith. The rite is mentioned officially for the first time in an ordinance issued by the Jewish consistory of the kingdom of Westphalia...
CONGREGATION – 1. An assembly convoked for a certain time and purpose ( = ἐκκλησία, I Kings viii. 65; Joel ii. 16; Ps. xl. 10. For and in Ps. xxvi. 12, lxviii. 26, "assemblies" would be more correct than "congregations" [A.V.]; and in Ps....
CONQUE, ABRAHAM BEN LEVI – Cabalist; lived at Hebron, Palestine, in the second half of the seventeenth century. Swayed by his cabalistic studies, Conque threw himself into the Shabbethaian movement, and became one of the most earnest apostles of the...
CONSECRATION – The solemn setting apart of a person or thing to a special use or purpose. According to Fleischer (Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." ii. 206), the word "ḥanak" (to initiate) is derived from the "rubbing of the throat" of an infant for...
CONSOLATION – Biblical Data: Comfort; alleviation of sorrow ( ); relief from grief (from , meaning in pi'el form "to remove grief"); words of sympathy and encouragement offered to persons in distress (Gen. xxxvii. 35; II Sam. xii. 24; Job...
CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY – Conversion is the Biblical term for the turning of the sinner from his evil ways to God ( ). "Sinners shall be converted unto thee" (Ps. li. 13; compare Isa. i. 27, and Jer. iii. 12, 14, 22, where the A. V. has "return"; Ecclus....
CONVERTS TO CHRISTIANITY, MODERN – The number of post-Mendelssohnian Jews who abandoned their ancestral faith is very large. According to Heman in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc." (x. 114), the number of converts during the nineteenth century exceeded 100,000; Salmon,...
CORNER-STONE – The laying of the corneror foundation-stone ( , or ) (Job xxxviii. 4-6; Ps. xviii. 15, xxiv. 2) of the earth by the Creator is a conception borrowed from Babylonian Cosmogony, the earth being regarded as a huge mountain piled...
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT – Physical chastisement inflicted as legal punishment. Corporal punishment is one of the oldest forms of chastisement known to the law. The method of its infliction according to Jewish law differs from that of other penal codes,...
COSMOGONY – Biblical Data: A theory concerning the origin ("begetting") of the world; the mythological or ante-scientific view, as preserved in the traditions, oral or written, and the folk-poetry of primitive and ancient peoples.Curiosity...
COSMOGONY – Biblical Data: A theory concerning the origin ("begetting") of the world; the mythological or ante-scientific view, as preserved in the traditions, oral or written, and the folk-poetry of primitive and ancient peoples.Curiosity...
COURAGE – That quality which enables one to encounter danger and difficulties with firmness, calmness, and intrepidity; Hebrew, ("Be of good courage," II Sam. x. 12), or ("Be strong and of a good courage," Deut. xxxi. 7, 23; Joshua i....