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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
COVETOUSNESS – The inordinate desire to possess that to which one is not entitled, or that which belongs to another. Its prohibition forms the burden of the tenth commandment, "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house; thou shalt not covet...
CREATION – The bringing into existence of the world by the act of God. Most Jewish philosophers find in (Gen. i. 1) creation ex nihilo ( ). The etymological meaning of the verb , however, is "to cut out and put into shape," and thus...
CREATURE – A loose rendering in the A. V. of:1. "Nefesh" ("a breathing thing"; Gen. i. 20 et seq., ii. 19, ix. 10 et seq.; Lev. xi. 46).2. "Beri'ah" ("creation"; R. V. better, "a new thing"; Num. xvi. 30).3. "Ḥayyot" ("heavenly animals";...
CRESCAS, ḤASDAI BEN ABRAHAM – Religious philosopher; born in Barcelona, Spain, 1340; died 1410. He was of an illustrious and learned family, in "Ḳore ha-Dorot" falsely designated as of the family (the abbreviation of , found at the end of the genealogy in...
CROSS – 1. The stake (σταῦρος = or ) used by the Romans at crucifixion. This was so familiar to the Jews in New Testament times that they spoke frequently of "men carrying their cross before them while going to be executed" (Gen. R....
CROWN – Biblical Data: The translation employed for five distinct Hebrew words in the Bible. It renders, first, "zer," a technical term used frequently in the Priestly portions of Exodus for the golden molding with which the Ark (xxv....
CROWN OF THE LAW – A coronet, usually made of gilded silver, with bells, bearing the Hebrew inscription . It is placed upon the upper ends of the handles of the scroll of the Law. Sometimes the crown is a double one. A similar emblem, often borne...
CROWNS OF THE RIGHTEOUS – The future bliss of the righteous is described by Rab in Ber. 17b: "There is neither eating and drinking nor marrying nor bargaining nor envy nor hatred nor quarrel in the world to come; but the righteous sit with crowns upon...
CRUCIFIXION – The act of putting to death by nailing or binding to a cross. Among the modes of Capital Punishment known to the Jewish penal law, crucifixion is not found; the "hanging" of criminals "on a tree," mentioned in Deut. xxi. 22, was...
CRUELTY – The disposition to inflict pain and to gloat over suffering. Widely prevalent among, if not characteristic of, savages and barbarians, it has influenced their treatment of strangers, enemies, and evildoers. Primitive races,...
DAN – Biblical Data: 1. The name of Jacob's fifth son (Gen. xxx. 6), whose mother was Bilhah, Rachel's handmaiden (ib. xxx. 3, xxxv. 25). He was therefore a full brother of Naphtali (xxx. 8). Dan's name occurs also in Gen. xlix. 16 et...
DANIEL BEN MOSES AL-ḲUMISI – One of the most prominent Karaite scholars of the earlier period; flourished atthe end of the ninth or at the beginning of the tenth century; a native of Damagan, the capital of the Persian province of Ḳumis, in Tabaristan, as...
DANIEL BEN SAADIA HA-BABLI – Talmudic scholar; lived at Damascus in the thirteenth century. He was a pupil of Samuel b. Ali Halevi, the anti-Maimonist. After Maimonides' death he undertook a campaign against the latter's works, which, however, he conducted...
DAR'I, MOSES – 1. Moses ben Adonim ha-Lewi: Karaite; flourished in Dar'ah toward the end of the ninth century. He was a grammarian of prominence, as is shown by the title "Medaḳdeḳ" (Grammarian) given to him. Some of his exegetic notes,...
DAVID BEN ABRAHAM HA-LABAN – French religious philosopher and cabalist; lived after 1200. His grandfather, Judah, was rabbi of Coucy-le-Château. David was the author of "Masoret ha-Berit" (The Bond of the Covenant), on the existence, the unity, and the...
DAVID BEN ABRAHAM SHEMARIAH – Cabalistic writer; lived at Salonica toward the end of the sixteenth century. He wrote "Torat Emet" (The True Law), which is an abridgment of the section on Genesis in the Zohar, with a commentary and glossary. Afterward he...
DAVID BEN BOAZ – Karaite scholar; flourished in the tenth century. He is reported to have been the fifth in the line of descent from Anan, the founder of Karaism (Anan, Saul, Jehoshaphat, and Boaz, father of David). The Karaite chronicler...
DAVID IBN HIN – Cabalist; lived at Salonica at the end of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Although blind, he devoted himself to cabalistic studies, and published the "Sefer Gerushim" of Moses Cordovero (Venice,...
DAVID BEN JUDAH – German cabalist; flourished in the thirteenth century. He was not the son of Judah ha-Ḥasid (see A. Epstein in "Monatsschrift," 1895, p. 450), but he may have been his grandnephew, the fact of his father's name being "Judah"...
DAVID (ABU SULAIMAN) AL-ḲUMISI – Karaite teacher of the tenth century, of whom little is known. As his name indicates, he was a native of the Persian province of Ḳumis. He died in Jerusalem in the year of the Hegira 334 (= 945 C.E.). His Biblical commentaries,...
DAY OF JUDGMENT – Name given to the first of Tishri, as being the New-Year's Day. In the Bible the Day of the Blowing of the Trumpet is the first day of the seventh—Sabbatical—month (Lev. xxiii. 24), and no mention is made of the Day of Judgment....
DAY OF JUDGMENT – Name given to the first of Tishri, as being the New-Year's Day. In the Bible the Day of the Blowing of the Trumpet is the first day of the seventh—Sabbatical—month (Lev. xxiii. 24), and no mention is made of the Day of Judgment....
DEAD, DUTY TO THE – The dead, free from all obligation (Shab. 30a), have many claims upon the living. "Their wish must be respected and fulfilled" (Giṭ. 14b; Maimonides, "Yad," Zekiyah, viii. 2, xiii. 1; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 125, 8). "It...
DEATH, ANGEL OF – Biblical Data: In the Bible death is viewed under form of an angel sent from God, a being deprived of all voluntary power. The "angel of the Lord" smites 185,000 men in the Assyrian camp (II Kings xix. 35). "The destroyer"...