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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
DEATH, ANGEL OF – Biblical Data: In the Bible death is viewed under form of an angel sent from God, a being deprived of all voluntary power. The "angel of the Lord" smites 185,000 men in the Assyrian camp (II Kings xix. 35). "The destroyer"...
DEATH, VIEWS AND CUSTOMS CONCERNING – In Biblical and Apocryphal Literature: The ancient Hebrews expected to "be gathered to [or sleep with] their fathers" when death befell them (Gen. xxv. 8, xlvii. 30), and feared only the idea of going down to Sheol mourning (ib....
DEATH, VIEWS AND CUSTOMS CONCERNING – In Biblical and Apocryphal Literature: The ancient Hebrews expected to "be gathered to [or sleep with] their fathers" when death befell them (Gen. xxv. 8, xlvii. 30), and feared only the idea of going down to Sheol mourning (ib....
DEBORAH – 1. Rebekah's nurse, who accompanied Jacob, and died on the road to Beth-el. She was buried under a terebinth ("oak" in A. V. and R. V.), on this account named "Allon-bakut" (terebinth of weeping; Gen.xxxv. 8). This tree appears...
DECALOGUE, THE, IN JEWISH THEOLOGY – The Ten Words are designated by Philo as κεφαλαῖα νόμων ="the heads of the law," the title of the chapter "De Decem Oraculis." The second table Philo, contrary to the usual order, begins with the commandment against adultery,...
DEDANIM – The descendants of the Arabian Dedan, spoken of (Isa. xxi. 13) as engaged in commerce. Dedan is first mentioned (Gen. x. 7; I Chron. i. 9) as a son of Raamah, son of Cush, and again (Gen. xxv. 3; I Chron. i. 32) as a son of...
DEHAVITES – The Dehavites are mentioned among the peoples settled in Samaria who opposed the reconstruction of the Temple at Jerusalem (Ezra iv. 9). Whether the Dehavites are to be connected with a nomadic Persian tribe, the Δήοι, mentioned...
DEISM – A system of belief which posits God's existence as the cause of all things, and admits His perfection, but rejects Divine revelation and government, proclaiming the all-sufficiency of natural laws. The Socinians, as opposed to...
DEMONOLOGY – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: Systematic knowledge concerning demons or evil spirits. Demons (Greek, δαίμονες or δαιμόνια; Hebrew, [Deut. xxxii. 17; Ps. cvi. 37] and [Lev. xvii. 7; II Chron. xi. 15; A. V. "devils"; Luther,...
DEVOTION – The state of religious consecration. It is the most essential element in worship; so that a divine service without it is "like to a body without a soul." To such as pray to God without the spirit of fervent devotion, the stern...
DEVOTIONAL LITERATURE – Aside from the regular prayers, which are treated under Liturgy, there exists a literature of private devotions, prayers offered on special occasions. Such devotions are strongly recommended in the Talmud, where private prayers...
DEW – Biblical Data: Moisture condensed from the atmosphere and gathered in small drops, specially upon the upper surface of plants. In Palestine dew "falls" in cloudless nights during the summer, and refreshes the vegetation, which...
DIBON – 1. A very ancient town, situated from three to five miles (Baedeker, "Palestine," p. 193) north of the River Arnon (Tristram, "The Land of Moab," pp. 132 et seq.). The true pronunciation seems to be "Daibon" (according to the...
DIDACHE – A manual of instruction for proselytes, adopted from the Synagogue by early Christianity, and transformed by alteration and amplification into a Church manual. Discovered among a collection of ancient Christian manuscripts in...
DIDASCALIA – A Greek work, in eight books, containing regulations of Church life, better known under the name of "Apostolic Constitutions," the full title being "Constitutions of the Holy Apostles [composed] by Clemens, Bishop and Citizen of...
DIETARY LAWS – Biblical and rabbinical regulations concerning forbidden food.Vegetable Food. A. The ancient Israelites lived chiefly on vegetable food and fruit, upon which the Bible places no restrictions (Gen. i. 29). With the development of...
DIETARY LAWS IN ISLAM – The Mohammedan dietary laws are neither as rigorous nor as numerous as in Judaism. They were not introduced into the religious code until the Medinian period of Mohammed's career. He probably found it unwise to force dietary...
DINAITES – A tribe mentioned in Ezra iv. 9 as having settled in Samaria, and as opposing and denouncing the efforts of the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem. The Dinaites have thus far not been positively identified.K. B. P.
DINHABAH – City mentioned in the Old Testament as the capital of Idumea, and probably the birthplace of Bela, son of Beor, King of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 32; I Chron. i. 43). The efforts at locating the Dinhabah of Scripture have thus far been...
DISHON – 1. A son of Seir, and head of the aboriginal Idumean tribes (Gen. xxxvi. 21, 30; I Chron. i. 38; compare 41). 2. A son of Anah, grandson of Seir, and brother of Aholibamah, Esau's second wife (Gen. xxxvi. 25; I Chron. i. 41). A...
DISINTERMENT – The act of exhumation, or taking out of the earth or the grave. The removal of dead bodies from one place of burial to another has been a subject of controversy among Jewish authorities, and in recent times has become a cause of...
DISPUTATIONS – Public debates on religious subjects between Jews and non-Jews. Religious differences have at all times induced serious-minded men to exchange their views in order to win opponents over to their own side by appeals to reason....
DIVINATION – The forecasting of the future by certain signs or movements of external things, or by visions in certain ecstatic states of the soul (see Dreams and Prophecy). Divination rests on the belief that spirits inhabit the various...
DOG – Term of Contempt. —Biblical Data: The dog referred to in the Bible is the semisavage species seen throughout the East, held in contempt for its fierce, unsympathetic habits, and not yet recognized for his nobler qualities as the...
DOMNINUS – Jewish philosopher; lived between 400 and 480. He was a native of Laodicea, or Larissa, in Syria; the pupil of Syrian, whom he perhaps succeeded as teacher of the Neoplatonic school at Athens. He was a contemporary of the...