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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ELHANAN HENDEL (HAENLE) BEN BENJAMIN WOLF KIRCHHAN – Ethical writer; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main at the end of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. Elhanan published in Judæo-German an ethical work, "Simḥat ha-Nefesh" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1707). The...
ELHANAN BEN SHEMARIAH – Egyptian Talmudist; flourished in the tenth and eleventh centuries. He was the son of Shemariah b. Elhanan of Kairwan, who left Egypt some time after his son Elhanan, who remained behind, had reached maturity. He wrote many...
ELIAKIM BEN ABRAHAM – Cabalist and grammarian; lived at London in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. His works are: "'Asarah Ma'amarot," a collection of ten essays; "Milḥamot Adonai," on philosophy and religion; "Binah la-'Ittim," on the...
ELIAKIM GOTTSCHALK OF ROTHENBURG – German Talmudist; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was a descendant of Meïr of Rothenburg, and, according to Michael, the son of Raphael ben Eliakim of Rothenburg. If Michael is correct, Eliakim was identical...
ELIAKIM (GÖTZ) BEN JACOB – Galician cantor, teacher, and translator; born at Komarno; died at Amsterdam before 1709. He was the author of: "Leshon Limmudim," a guide to letter writing in Hebrew (Amsterdam, 1686); "Seliḥot," in Judæo-German, recited by the...
ELIAKIM BEN NAPHTALI – Italian ethical writer; lived in the fifteenth century; author of "Ṭob Shem. Ṭob," selections from the Talmud and Midrashim, treating of the retribution, the suffering in the tomb, and the resurrection. The work, divided into 11...
ELIEZER ISAAC COHEN BEN ABRAHAM ASHKENAZI OF VITERBO – Italian physician and Talmudic authority; born at Rome at the beginning of the sixteenth century; died, probably at Sienna, Oct. 16, 1590. He was a brother-in-law of the physician and Talmudist David de Pomis, and, like him,...
ELIEZER LIEPMANN BEN JUDAH LÖB LEVI BRODY – Cabalist of Galicia in the eighteenth century; author of two cabalistic commentaries: one on the Psalms, "Migdal Dawid," with a general introduction under the title "Ṭal Orot," published together with the text, Vienna, 1792: and...
ELIEZER OF TOLEDO – Rabbi in Constantinople in the first half of the nineteenth century and a contemporary of Ḥiyya Pontremoli. He was the author of "Mishnat de-Rabbi Eli'ezer," a collection of one hundred and thirty-four responsa on the civil laws...
ELIEZER OF TOUQUES – French tosafist; lived at Touques in the second half of the thirteenth century. He abridged the tosafot of Samson of Sens, Samuel of Evreux, and many others, and added thereto marginal notes of his own, entitled "Gilyon...
ELIJAH – Biblical Data: The name means "Yhwh is (my) God," and is a confession that its bearer defended Yhwh against the worshipers of Baal and of other gods. It has therefore been assumed that the prophet took this name himself...
ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM – Karaite scholar of the twelfth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Ḥaluḳḳot ha-Ḳara'im weha-Rabbanim," on the controversy between Karaites and Rabbinites (published by Pinsker in his "Liḳḳuṭe Ḳadmoniyyot," Supplement,...
ELIJAH BA'AL SHEM OF CHELM – Polish rabbi; born in 1550; died at Chelm. About 1565 he entered the yeshibah of Rabbi Solomon Luria of Lublin, and, after receiving the rabbinical ordination, became rabbi of Chelm, which position he held until his death....
ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH – Turkish Talmudist and commentator; lived at Salonica in the sixteenth century. He wrote: "Ḳol Teru'ah," homilies on the Pentateuch, Salonica, 1562; and an unpublished commentary on Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Daniel, Ezra, and...
ELIJAH B. JUDAH LÖOB OF WISCHNITZ – Polish rabbi and author; died in 1715. At an early age he left Poland and went to Fulda, Germany, where he became rabbi. He wrote: a commentary on Sheḳalim (Yer.), with quotations of parallel passages, Frankfort-on-the-Main,...
ELIJAH BEN MENAHEM HA-ZAḲEN – French liturgical poet; flourished at Le Mans in the eleventh century. According to Solomon Luria, (Responsa, No. 29), he was the son-in-law of Sherira. Gaon. Fürst doubts that Elijah was of Le Mans, takingthe name to be the...
ELIJAH RABBENU (BEN JUDAH TISHBI) – Karaite scholar; died about 1584. He wrote in 1579 at Constantinople a work called "Pe'er" (="Perush Eliyahu Rabbenu"), a super-commentary on the first part of Aaron ben Joseph's Biblical commentary "Ha-Mibḥar." Moses of Zurudi,...
ELIJAH BEN SHEMAIAH – Italian rabbi and liturgical poet; lived at Bari in the twelfth century. He was one of the teachers of Samuel b. Naṭronai; and his signature, with those of many other rabbis, is appended to a responsum found in Samuel's novellæ...
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN – Dayyan of Smyrna; almoner and preacher; died 1729. Elijah produced over thirty works, of which the principal, according to Wunderbar ("Orient, Lit." p. 579), are as follows: "Midrash Eliyahu," eleven funeral sermons and a...
ELISHA BEN ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH – Russian rabbi; died at Grodno July 1, 1749. He was rabbi and chief of the yeshibah of Lucicz, Volhynia, Russia. Elisha was the author of "Ḳab we-Naḳi," a short commentary on the Mishnah (Amsterdam, 1697), and he annotated and...
ELLES (ELIS), ISAAC BEN MOSES – Polish rabbi of the sixteenth century; author of "Yesod Emunah," a treatise on the dogmas of Judaism, Cracow, 1582. He also wrote "Yesod ha-Teshubah," on repentance, extracts from other works, and chiefly from the "Yoreh...
EMANATION – The doctrine that all existing things have been produced not by any creative power, but as successive outflowings from the God-head, so that all finite creatures are part and parcel of the Divine Being. This pantheistic...
EMET WE-YAẒẒIB – The initial words of the morning benediction following the Shema' and closing with the Ge'ullah ("Redemption"). Recited by the priests after the Shema' in the morning service in the Temple hall, "lishkat ha-gazit" (Tamid v. 1),...
EMPEDOCLES OF AGRIGENTUM – Greek philosopher and disciple of Pythagoras; flourished in the fifth century B.C.Empedocles' system, modified by the Neoplatonic school, entered into Arabic philosophy, and found exponents among the Jewish philosophers of Spain...
EMRICH, SOLOMON BEN GUMPEL – Dayyan of Prague in the second half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work called "Shishshah Zir'one 'Arugah," six discussions in regard to ritual laws, one of them being with Ezekiel Landau about the law of...