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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
EN SOF – Cabalistic term for the Deity prior to His self-manifestation in the production of the world, probably derived from Ibn Gabirol's term," the Endless One" (she-en lo tiklah). It was first used by Azriel ben Menahem, who, sharing...
ENDLER, SAMUEL BENZION – Talmudist; lived at Prague (?) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was the author of "Emunat Yisrael," treating of morals and dogmas as dealt with by Maimonides, Judah ha-Levi, Naḥmanides, and others (Prague,...
ENEMY, TREATMENT OF AN – Hatred of an enemy is a natural impulse of primitive peoples; willingness to forgive an enemy is a mark of advanced moral development. Jewish teaching, in Bible, Talmud, and other writings, gradually educates the people toward...
ENOCH BEN SOLOMON AL-ḲUSṬAN-ṬINI – Turkish philosopher and cabalist (according to Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i., No. 635, also a physician); lived at Constantinople in the fifteenth century. He wrote " Mar'ot Elohim," a philosophical explanation of the visions of Isaiah...
EPHRAIM B. JACOB – German Talmudist, liturgical poet, and chronographer; born in 1133; died after 1196. Ephraim belonged to a prominent family of scholars, which included Eliezer b. Nathan, to whom he addressed questions, and Leontin b. Jacob. He...
EPHRAIM BEN JUDAH – Liturgical poet of the twelfth century. According to Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 348) he lived in the northern part of France, and may be identical (ib. p. 495) with the Ephraim quoted by Jeroham in his "Toledot Adam we-Ḥawwah"...
EPHRAIM BEN SAMSON – Bible exegete; flourished in France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was the author of "Perush 'al ha-Torah," which consists chiefly of gemaṭria and "noṭariḳon." He largely followed Eleazar of Worms. The commentary...
EPHRAIM OF SUDILKOV – Russian rabbi and preacher among the Ḥasidim of the Ukraine; born at Medzhibozh, Podolia, about 1750; died at Sudilkov, Volhynia, about 1799. He was the grandson of Israel Ba'al Shem-Ṭob and a twin-brother of Baruch of Tulchin....
EPSTEIN – The surname "Eppstein" is one of the oldest Jewish family names in the Slavic countries. Nathan ha-Levi Eppstein and Solomon b. Jacob ha-Levi Eppstein are mentioned in the responsa (No. 37) of R. Moses Minz about the middle of...
EPSTEIN – The surname "Eppstein" is one of the oldest Jewish family names in the Slavic countries. Nathan ha-Levi Eppstein and Solomon b. Jacob ha-Levi Eppstein are mentioned in the responsa (No. 37) of R. Moses Minz about the middle of...
ERGAS, JOSEPH BEN IMMANUEL – Italian rabbi and cabalist; born in Leghorn 1685; died May 19, 1730. He is frequently mentioned by Meldola in his responsa "Mayim Rabbim," by Morpurgo in his "Shemesh Ẓedaḳah," and in the "Milḥamah la-Adonai" (p. 48).Ergas...
ESCHATOLOGY – The Day of the Lord. Gen. xlix. 1; comp. Gen. R. xcviii., "the Messianic end" ; Isa. ii. 1; also "the end," Dent. xxxii. 20; Ps. lxxiii. 17; Ben Sira vii. 36, xxviii. 6; comp. "Didache," xvi. 3): The doctrine of the "last...
ESDRAS, BOOKS OF – Apocryphal writings ascribed to Ezra.I Esdras: Name and Versions. Plain of Esdraelon, with Mount Tabor in the Distance.(From a photograph by Bonfils.)The apocryphal Book of Ezra, or, better, the "Greek Ezra" (Esdræ Græcus), is...
ESKELES, GABRIEL BEN JUDAH LÖW – Polish rabbi; died at Nikolsburg, Moravia, Feb. 2, 1718. At first dayyan at Cracow during the rabbinate of his teacher, Aaron Samuel Kaidanower (1671), Eskeles successively occupied the rabbinates of Olkusz, government of...
ESKELES, ISSACHAR BERUSH – Austrian rabbi and financier; born 1692; died at Vienna March 2, 1753; son of Gabriel Eskeles and son-in-law of Samson Wertheimer. Eskeles called himself "Issachar Berush of Cracow," although at the time of his birth his father...
ESPERANSSA, GABRIEL – Rabbi at Safed contemporaneously with Jonathan Galante (middle of seventeenth century). It is supposed that he was received as an orphan into the house of a woman by the name of Esperanssa, who adopted and educated him, and...
ESSENES – A branch of the Pharisees who conformed to the most rigid rules of Levitical purity while aspiring to the highest degree of holiness. They lived solely by the work of their hands and in a state of communism, devoted their time...
ETHICS – The science of morals, or of human duty; the systematic presentation of the fundamental principles of human conduct and of the obligations and duties deducible therefrom. It includes, therefore, also the exposition of the...
ETHICS – The science of morals, or of human duty; the systematic presentation of the fundamental principles of human conduct and of the obligations and duties deducible therefrom. It includes, therefore, also the exposition of the...
ETHICS – The science of morals, or of human duty; the systematic presentation of the fundamental principles of human conduct and of the obligations and duties deducible therefrom. It includes, therefore, also the exposition of the...
ETTHAUSEN, ISAAC SECKEL BEN MENAHEM – German rabbi; flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century, officiating as rabbi in various German towns during a period of fifty-five years. He was the author of "Or Ne'elam," a collection of fifty-eight responsa...
ETTINGER (OETTINGER) – Family name derived from the city of Oettingen in Bavaria, and found all over Europe among Ashkenazim families. The Galician and Russian family of Ettingers contains many rabbis and writers of some distinction. The best-known...
EVIL EYE – A supposed power of bewitching or harming by spiteful looks, attributed to certain persons as a natural endowment. The belief that a glance can damage life and property is wide-spread among both savage and civilized peoples (for...
EVOLUTION – Judaism and Evolution. The series of steps by which all existing beings have been developed by gradual modification; term generally applied to the theory concerning the origin of species and the descent of man connected with the...
EXILE – The translation of "goleh" (II Sam. xv. 19) and "ẓo'eh" (Isa. li. 14) in the English versions; it also occurs as a translation of "galut" (Isa. xx. 4) and "golah" (Ezek. xii. 4, 11; Ezra viii. 35) in the Revised Version (where...