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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
EXORCISM – The expulsion of evil spirits by spells; in Greek ἐκβάλλειν (Matt. viii. 16, 31; ix. 34, 38; Mark i. 34, 38; ix. 38; Luke xiii. 32; and elsewhere). See Demonology; and compare the sorcery-papyrus in Paris, line 1257, εκβαλειν...
EZRA THE PROPHET OF MONCONTOUR – French tosafist; flourished in the thirteenth century. The title "prophet" is, according to Zunz, an honorific one. It is possible that his French name was "Profiat," which was translated into Hebrew as "Nabi" (= "Prophet")....
FAḌL, DA'UD ABU AL- – Karaite physician; born at Cairo 1161; died there about 1242. Having studied medicine under the Jewish physician Hibat Allah ibn Jami', and under Abu al-Faḍa'il ibnNaḳid, he became the court physician of the sultan Al-Malik...
FAITH – In Biblical and rabbinical literature, and hence in the Jewish conception, "faith" denotes not belief in a dogmatic sense (see Saul of Tarsus), but either (a) faithfulness (from the passive form "ne'eman" = "trusted" or...
FALL OF MAN – A change from the beatific condition, due to the alleged original depravity of the human race. The events narrated in Gen. iii. leading up to the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden are held to support the doctrine of the fall...
FAMILY AND FAMILY LIFE – The family includes either those who are descended from a common progenitor, as "bet Dawid," the house (dynasty) of David (I Sam. xx. 16); "bet Lewi," the house (tribe) of Levi (Num. xvii. 8); "bet Yisrael," the house (nation)...
FARḤI, JOSEPH SHABBETHAI – Talmudic scholar and cabalist; born at Jerusalem about 1802; died at Leghorn, Italy, in 1882. Farḥi was an earnest cabalist; he believed that after death the human body undergoes the trial of purgatory which the cabalists call...
FATALISM – The doctrine that every event is predestined and must inevitably take place. According to Josephus, the question of fate—or rather, as he really means, of divine predestination—was one of the points in which the Pharisees...
FELIX PRATENSIS – Jewish apostate; born at Prato, Italy, in the second half of the fifteenth century; died at Rome in 1539. He received a good education and acquired a perfect knowledge of three languages. In 1518 he embraced Christianity,...
FLATTERY – Insincere, obsequious, or venal praise. Flattery is condemned by Jewish moralists as an offense against sincerity (Ps. xii. 3). It spreads a net for man, and may work his ruin (Prov. xxvi. 28, xxix. 5; compare ii. 16, vi. 24,...
FOLLY AND FOOL – According to the Jewish conception, folly is the antithesis of morality and piety (Prov. xiii. 19; Job xxviii. 28), as well as of wisdom and prudence (Prov. xiii. 16, 20); and the fool is an offender against religion and ethics,...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GALANTE – Jewish family which flourished at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Rome, and the head of which, Mordecai, was a Spanish exile of the Angel family. His courteous manners won for him from the Roman nobles the surname...
GALLAḤ – Epithet originally applied to Catholic priests on account of their tonsure. Later the same epithet was extended to Greek Orthodox priests. "'Gallaḥ," with its plural "gallaḥim," occurs very often in Hebrew medieval literature....
GALLICO, ELISHA BEN GABRIEL – Palestinian Talmudist; died at Safed about 1583. He was a pupil of Joseph Caro. After the death of his master, Gallico was nominated chief of the yeshibah of Safed. He is frequently mentioned in the responsa collection "Abḳat...
GALLICO, SAMUEL – Italian Talmudist and cabalist; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was a pupil of Moses Cordovero and the teacher of Menahem Azariah di Fano. Gallico was the compiler of "'Asis Rimmonim," consisting of extracts...
GEHENNA – Nature and Situation. The place where children were sacrificed to the god Moloch was originally in the "valley of the son of Hinnom," to the south of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 8, passim; II Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. ii. 23; vii. 31-32;...
GENAZZANO, ELIJAH ḤAYYIM BEN BENJAMIN OF – Italian physician, theologian, and cabalist; flourished in the first half of the sixteenth century. He had a religious controversy with Fra Francisco da Acquapendente, in which he bitterly attacked Christianity for its dogma of...
GERONDI, MOSES B. SOLOMON D'ESCOLA – Hebrew poet; relative of Moses Naḥmanides; lived at Gerona, Catalonia, in the second half of the thirteenth century. In the letter Naḥmanides wrote to his son from Jerusalem he sends his greetings to Gerondi, whom he calls "beni...
GERSHON B. JACOB HA-GOZER – German Talmudist; flourished in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was a grand-nephew, and probably pupil, of Ephraim b. Jacob of Bonn. Like his father, Jacob b. Gershon ha-Gozer, he was a mohel, continuing the work, begun...
GERSHON (CHRISTIAN) BEN MEÏR OF BIBERBACH – Jewish convert; born at Reckling-hausen, Prussia, Aug. 1, 1569; drowned at Dröhelm Sept. 25, 1627. After teaching Hebrew and Talmud for many years in different German towns, Gershon was baptized at Halberstadt Oct. 9, 1600. He...
GERSHON BEN SOLOMON BEN ASHER – French Talmudist; flourished at Béziers in the twelfth century. He was the author of a casuistic work entitled "Sefer ha-Shalmon," finished by his son Samuel. Isaac b. Sheshet quotes this work in his Responsa (No. 170), but he...
GESUNDHEIT, JACOB BEN ISAAC – Polish rabbi; born in Warsaw 1815; died there Sept. 11, 1878. He conducted a yeshibah for forty-two years, some of his many pupils becoming well-known rabbis. In 1870 he was chosen rabbi of Warsaw in succession to R. Bär ben...
GHAZALI, ABU ḤAMID MOHAMMED IBN MOHAMMED AL- – Arabian theologian and moralist; born at Tuz, Khorasan, 1058; died there 1111. His works exerted a great influence upon Jewish thought in the Middle Ages. Both the students and the adversaries of philosophy found in them rich...