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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
GHAZZATI, NATHAN BENJAMIN BEN ELISHA HA-LEVI – Shabbethaian prophet; born at Jerusalem 1644; died at Sofia 1680. After studying Talmud and Cabala in his native town under Jacob Ḥagis, he settled at Gaza, whence his name "Ghazzati." The fact of his father being a German Jew...
GIBBOR, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH – Karaite scholar; flourished at Constantinople between 1500 and 1540. His main work, which was highly esteemed by the Karaite scholars, was a poem entitled "Minḥat Yehudah"; it consisted of 1,612 verses ending in , containing all...
GIKATILLA, JOSEPH B. ABRAHAM – Spanish cabalist; born at Medinaceli, Old Castile, 1248; died at Peñafiel after 1305. Gikatilla was for some time a pupil of the cabalist Abraham Abulafia, by whom he is highly praised; his cabalistic knowledge became so...
GOLDEN RULE, THE – By this name is designated the saying of Jesus (Matt. vii. 12): "All things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them." In James ii. 8 it is called "the royal law." It has been held...
GÖTZ, JOSEPH ISSACHAR BAER BEN ELHANAN – German rabbi; born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder about 1640; died at Jerusalem after 1701. In 1675 he was rabbi of his native town, and in 1687 became rabbi of Kremsir, in Moravia, where in 1694, with David Oppenheim as associate...
GRACE, DIVINE – One of the attributes of God, signifying His loving-kindness and mercy, and particularly His compassion for the weak, the unfortunate, and the sinful. It is in contrast with the attribute of justice, inasmuch as grace is granted...
HABDALAH – The rabbinical term for the benedictions and prayers by means of which a division is made between times of varying degrees of holiness, e.g., between Sabbath and work-day, festival and work-day, or Sabbath and festival. The...
HABERKASTEN, KALMAN (KALONYMUS) – Polish rabbi of the sixteenth century. He is the first known rabbi of the city of Ostrog, Volhynia, where he settled after having previously presided over a yeshibah in Lemberg. His daughter Lipka married Solomon Luria, who...
ḤABIB, JOSEPH IBN – Spanish Talmudist; flourished in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Like his predecessor, R. Nissim b. Reuben (RaN), Ibn Ḥabib wrotea commentary on the halakot of Isaac Alfasi, entitled "Nimmuḳe Yosef," published with the...
ḤABIB, MOSES B. SHEM-ṬOB IBN – Hebrew grammarian, poet, translator, and philosopher of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Being a native of Lisbon, he called himself "Sefardi"; but he left his native country long before the expulsion of the Jews. He lived...
ḤABILLO, SIMON BEN JUDAH BEN DAVID – Rabbi at Hebron in the middle of the seventeenth century; contemporary of Moses Zacuto, who approved his works. Ḥabillo was the author of: "Ḥebel ben Yehudah," a commentary on the Haggadah of Passover, Mantua, 1694; and "Ḥeleḳ...
HABINENU – Initial word, also the name, of a prayer containing in abridged form the Eighteen Benedictions (see Shemoneh 'Esreh), minus the first three and the closing three (see Liturgy). The prayer was formulated by Samuel of Nehardea, to...
HADASSI, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH HAABEL – Contents of the "Eshkol." Karaite scholar, controversialist, and liturgist; flourished at Constantinople in the middle of the twelfth century. Regarding the name "ha-Abel," which signifies "mourner for Zion," see Abele Zion....
ḤADDAD, ISAAC – Talmudic scholar of Gerba (an island near Tunis), where he died in 1755. He was a pupil of Ẓemaḥ ha-Kohen, and was the author of two works, "Toledot Yiẓḥaḳ," novellæ on Haggadah and Midrashim (Leghorn, 1761), and "Ḳarne Re'em,"...
ḤADIDA, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH – Spanish Talmudist of the fifteenth century. He was the author of a commentary (unpublished) to Ecclesiastes, Esther, and the Haggadah ("Cat. De Rossi," No. 177). He is quoted in the Responsa of Joseph di Trani (i., No....
HAIDA, SAMUEL – Bohemian cabalistic author; died June 1, 1685, in Prague, where he was dayyan and preacher, and which was probably his native city. He edited the Tanna debe Eliyahu Rabbah with two commentaries and copious references (Prague,...
ḤAḲAN, SAMUEL (SAMUEL HA-LEVI IBN ḤAKIM) – Egyptian rabbi of the sixteenth century, first at Cairo, subsequently at Jerusalem (Levi ibn Ḥabib, Responsa, Nos. 10, 110; Conforte, "Ḳore ha-Dorot," s.v. "Ashkenazi"; Joseph Taytazak, "She'erit Yehudah," ed. Salonica, 1604, p....
ḤAKMAN IBN ISHMAEL – Egyptian rabbi of the sixteenth century. He wrote novellæ on the Talmud and on Maimonides' "Yad," some of which were included by R. Mas'ud Ḥai b. Aaron Roḳeaḥ in his "Ma'aseh Roḳeaḥ," a commentary on the first part of the "Yad"...
HALBERSTADT, ABRAHAM, BEN MENKI – German Hebraist and Talmudic scholar; died at Halberstadt about 1780. His "Pene Abraham" (unpublished), a treatise on the most difficult halakot of the Talmud, shows him to have been an authority in Talmudic matters. Besides...
HALBERSTADT, JUDAH BEN BENJAMIN – Rabbinical author of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Minḥat Yehudah," giving explanations of all passages in Rashi on Berakot in which the word "ke-lomar" occurs. A similar work on Shabbat, 'Erubin, and Berakot...
HALBERSTADT, MORDECAI – German rabbi; born at Halberstadt at the beginning of the eighteenth century; died at Düsseldorf about 1770. After studying at Frankfort-on-the-Main under Jacob ha-Kohen (1730), Halberstadt became teacher in the rabbinical...
ḤALFON, ABBA MARI – Italian astronomer of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In 1492 he was at Naples, where he studied astronomy. Ḥalfon was the author of "Ṭa'ame Miẓwot," containing explanatory notes on the Alfonsine Tables, and still extant...
ḤALFON, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL – Rabbi of Tripoli, North Africa; died about 1803. He was the author of a work entitled "Ḥayye Abraham," a treatise on the ritual laws of Oraḥ Ḥayyim. and Yorch De'ah (Leghorn, 1826).Bibliography: Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole...
ḤALFON, ELIJAH MENAHEM – Italian Talmudist and physician; son of the astronomer Abba Mari and son-in-law of Kalonymus ben David (Maestro Calo); flourished at Venice in the middle of the sixteenth century. In a collection of responsa compiled by Joseph...
ḤAMAI – Pseudonym of a cabalist belonging, according to Jellinek, to the school of Isaac the Blind. The works which bear this name are: "Sefer ha-Yiḥud," probably on the Tetragrammaton, quoted by Meïr ibn Gabbai ("'Abodat ha-Ḳodesh,"...