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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
HEART – Biblical Data: The seat of the emotional and intellectual life. "Keep thy heart with all diligence; for out of it are the issues of life" (Prov. iv. 23), refers to the moral and spiritual as well as the physical life. Animals...
HEAVEN – Chiefly, the upper part of the universe in contradistinction to the earth (Gen. i. 1); the region in which sun, moon, and stars are placed (Gen. i. 17). It is stretched out as a curtain (Isa. xl. 22), and is founded upon the...
HEILBRONN, JOSEPH BEN ELHANAN – German Hebrew scholar; lived at Posen in the sixteenth century. Nepi-Ghirondi's "Toledot Gedole Yisrael" (p. 203) mentions a Joseph Heilbronn who died at Padua in 1622, but who can not be identified with Joseph ben Elhanan....
HEILBUT, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH – German Talmudist; lived at Altona in the middle of the eighteenth century. In July, 1751, he wrote there "Binah Rabbah," a commentary to the Midrash Rabbah and on the Midrashim to Psalms; Proverbs, and Samuel. Chief attention is...
HEILPRIN, ELIEZER B. MORDECAI – Polish rabbi; born probably in Yaroslav, Galicia, in 1648; died at Fürth in 1700. He was rabbi successively in Gross Meseritẓ, Moravia; Tomaszow, Russian Poland; and Fürth, Bavaria. Heilprin was the author of "Siaḥ ha-Se'uddah,"...
HEKALOT RABBATI; HEKALOT ZUṬARTI – Two mystic writings attributed to Ishmael ben Elisha; indiscriminately referred to by the various names of "Sefer Hekalot," "Pirḳe Hekalot," "Pirḳe Rabbi Yishmael," "Pirḳe Merkabah," "Ma'aseh Merkabah," "Hilkot Merkabah." They...
HEḲDESH – Hebrew name for an asylum or a hospital; found in many medieval Jewish documents (see Charity; Jew. Encyc. v. 71, s.v. Egypt; and comp. Bédarride, "Les Juifs en France," p. 137). Its origin goes back to pre-Christian times (see...
HEMEROBAPTISTS – Division of Essenes who bathed every morning before the hour of prayer in order to pronounce the name of God with a clean body (Tosef., Yad., end; the correct version being given by R. Simson of Sens: "The morning bathers said...
HEREDIA, PAULUS (PABLO) DE – Spanish anti-Jewish writer; born about 1405 in Aragon; died at an advanced age after 1486. Baptized late in life, he attacked Judaism, though he had at one time defended it and his former coreligionists. In order to assail the...
HERESY AND HERETICS – The Greek term άίρεσις originally denoted "division," "sect," "religious" or "philosophical party," and is applied by Josephus ("B. J." ii. 8, § 1, and elsewhere) to the three Jewish sects—Sadducees, Pharisees, and Essenes...
HERMES, BOOKS OF – Hermes (the Greek Mercury), in popular belief the leader of souls to Hades, was in later times identified in Egypt with the local god Thot, who was also the messenger of the gods and the heavenly scribe and inventor of writing....
HERODIANS – Priestly party under the reign of King Herod and his successors; called by the Rabbis "Boethusians," as adherents of the family of Boethus, whose daughter Mariamne was one of the wives of King Herod, and whose sons were...
HERRERA, ALONZO DE – Cabalist; born in Spain; died in Amsterdam, Holland, 1631. According to D. L. de Barrios, Herrera was descended from the famous Spanish commander, Fernandez Gonzalo de Cordova ("the Great Captain"). He represented the Sultan of...
HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB – German rabbi and tosafist; martyred at Bacharach in 1283. He was an uncle and teacher of Meïr of Rothenburg and a pupil of Abraham Hladik, the Bohemian Talmudist. He succeeded his father in the rabbinate of Magdeburg; but, as a...
ḤIBBUṬ HA-ḲEBER – One of the seven modes of judgment or of punishment man undergoes after death, as described in the treatise "Ḥibbuṭ ha-Ḳeber," also known as "Midrash R. Yiẓḥaḳ b. Parnak." According to a description given by R. Eliezer (1st...
ḤIWI AL-BALKHI – Exegete and Biblical critic of the last quarter of the ninth century; born at Balkh, Persia. He was the author of a work in which he offered two hundred objections to the divine origin of the Bible (Judah ben Barzillai's...
ḤIYYA, MEÏR BEN DAVID – Italian Talmudist of the sixteenth century. He was dayyan of Venice 1510-20, during the rabbinate of Benedet ben Eliezer Acsildor, who esteemed him highly. Like Benedet, he took part in the dispute between Jacob Polak and...
HOLINESS – Unapproachableness; the state of separation from, and elevation above, things common, profane, or sensual, first in a physical and external, and later in a spiritual, sense; moral purity and perfection incapable of sin and...
HOLLE KREISH – The ceremony of naming infants, especially girls, in the cradle ("shem ha'arisah"), adopted by the German Jews from their neighbors. On the Sabbath when the mother of the child attends the synagogue for the first time after her...
HOMILETICS – Traditional Antiquity of Preaching. That branch of rhetoric which treats of the composition and delivery of sermons or homilies. Although from the very nature of the case provision had been made for public worship among the...
HOMILETICS – Traditional Antiquity of Preaching. That branch of rhetoric which treats of the composition and delivery of sermons or homilies. Although from the very nature of the case provision had been made for public worship among the...
HONOR – Either the distinction or excellence manifested by a man, or the mark of distinction accorded to him. "Kabod," when a manifestation of God, is translated "glory" (Ex. xvi. 10, and elsewhere); occasionally also when predicated of...
HOPE – The expectation of something desired. The Hebrew terms for "hope" are "tiḳwah" and "seber," while "miḳweh" and "kislah" denote "trust"; and "toḥelet" signifies "expectation."—Biblical Data: Hope, a characteristic element of...
HOSANNA – The cry which the people of Jerusalem were accustomed to raise while marching in procession and waving branches of palm, myrtle, and willow in the joyous Sukkot festival, especially on the seventh day, when the willow-branches...
HOSHKE, REUBEN – Cabalist; rabbi of Prague; (died April 3, 1673. "Hoshke," his father's name, is a Polish diminutive for "Joshua," mistaken by De Rossi ("Dizionario," s.v. "Oski, Ruben") and Zunz ("Z. G." p. 402) for his family name. He wrote:...