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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
HUMILITY – The quality of being humble.—Biblical Data: Judaism, in its conception of humility as in its conception of many other things, stands between the two extremes of self-deification and self-effacement. Jeremiah, in urging the...
ḤUPPAH – uppah, or Wedding-Baldachin, Among Dutch Jews, Seventeenth Century.(From Leusden, "Philologus Hebræo-Mixtus," Utrecht, 1657.)A Hebrew word signifying a canopy (Isa. iv. 5; Lev. R. xxv.; Eccl. R. vii. 11), especially the bridal...
HYPOCRISY – A word derived from the Greek ὑποκρίσις="the playing a part on the stage." It denotes acting a false part in life; pretending to be pious or righteous when one is not. It is only in later Hebrew that "ḥanufah" and "ḥanef" refer...
HYPSISTARIANS – Semi-Jewish sect found on the Bosporus in the first Christian century and in Asia Minor down to the fourth century. They worshiped God under the name of Θεὸς Υψισος Παντοκράτωρ (the Most High and Almighty One), observed the...
IBN BILIA, DAVID BEN YOM-ṬOB – Portuguese philosopher; lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Steinschneider believes him to have been the father of the astronomer Jacob Poel. Ibn Bilia was the author of many works, the greater part of which, no...
IBN ḤUSAIN (ABU SULAIMAN) DAUD – Karaite liturgical poet; flourished in the first half of the tenth century. He compiled a prayer-book for the Karaites, entitled "Tefillat Bene Miḳra," in which he inserted many poems and prayers composed by himself. The prayers...
IBN LAṬIF, ISAAC B. ABRAHAM – Spanish physician and cabalist; probably born at Toledo; died at Jerusalem, whither he had gone in indigent circumstances, about 1290. He was the natural philosopher among the cabalists of his period. Cabalistic terms had not...
IBN SHU'AIB, JOEL – Rabbi, preacher, and commentator of the fifteenth century; born in Aragon; lived also at Tudela. He wrote: "'Olat Shabbat," sermons, in the order of the Sabbatical sections, written in 1469 (Venice, 1577); a commentary on...
IBN SHU'AIB, JOSHUA – Preacher and cabalist; flourished about 1328. He was a pupil of Solomon ben Adret and the teacher of Menahem ibn Zerah. Together with Shem-Ṭob ben Abraham ibn Gaon, he was accused by Isaac the Blind of Acco ofuntrustworthiness...
IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL – The belief that the soul continues its existence after the dissolution of the body is a matter of philosophical or theological speculation rather than of simple faith, and is accordingly nowhere expressly taught in Holy...
INFANCY, LEGAL ASPECT OF – Infants, the deaf, and those of unsound mind are always named together, as not liable for torts, nor punishable for offenses, nor competent as witnesses (see Accident; Assault and Battery; Evidence). For the difficulties...
INTERMARRIAGE – Biblical Prohibition. Marriage between persons of different races or tribes. A prohibition to intermarry with the Canaanites is found in Deut. vii. 3, where it is said: "Neither shalt thou make marriages with them [any of the...
ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM ANCONA AL- ḲUSṬANṬINI – Italian Talmudist; lived at Ancona in the first half of the eighteenth century. He carried on a scientific correspondence with Isaac Lampronti, who frequently mentions him in his "Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ."Bibliography: Mortara, Indice, p....
ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF NEUSTADT – Dutch cabalist; lived at Amsterdam in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was an assistant rabbi at Amsterdam, where he devoted himself to the editing of cabalistic works. In 1701 he published, from a manuscript he had...
ISAAC (ABU JACOB) BAR BAHLUL – Karaite scholar; lived at the end of the eleventh, or at the beginning of the twelfth, century. Two decisions of his have been preserved by Hadassi. The first of these ("Eshkol ha-Kofer," alphabet 197) refers to the eating of...
ISAAC THE BLIND – French cabalist; flourished in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Isaac is considered the founder of the Cabala; or, rather, he transmuted the mysticism of the Geonim into the present form of the Cabala. He is therefore...
ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF ACRE – Palestinian cabalist; flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. According to Azulai ("Shem ha-Gedolim,"s.v.), he was a pupil of Naḥmanides. He was at Acre when that town was taken by Al-Malik al-Ashraf, and was...
ISḤAḲ. IBN 'ALI IBN ISḤAḲ – Karaite scholar of the eleventh century. The "Chronicle" of Ibn al-Hiti contains a warm eulogy of the scholarly attainments of Isḥaḳ ibn 'Ali, and cites two works of his, one a polemic against Saadia in the style of the "Sefer...
ISHMAEL OF AKBARA – Founder of the Jewish sect of Akbarites; flourished in the time of the calif Al-Mu'taṣim (833-841). He was a native of Akbara, in Irak, ten parasangs from Bagdad. He is reputed to have been very vain, and is said to have...
ISLAM – Arabic word denoting "submission to God"; the name given to the religion of Mohammed and to the practises connected therewith. This religion was preached first to Mohammed's follow citizens in Mecca, then to all Arabia; and soon...
ISRAEL B. MOSES – Polish cabalist; lived at the end of the sixteenth century. He is known only through his book "Tamim Yaḥdaw," in which all verses of the Psalms and the Proverbs found in the Zohar are collected, with the explanations there...
ISRAEL BEN SHABBETHAI OF KOZIENICE – Hasidic rabbi, cabalist, and thaumaturge; born at Kozienice, government of Radom, Russian Poland, about 1745; died in 1815. Israel was successively a pupil of Baer of Meseritz, Samuel Shmelka Hurwitz, and Elimelech of Lezaysk....
JABALI, ABU AL-ṬAYYIB AL- – Karaite scholar of the tenth century. His full name is said to have been Samuel ben Asher ben Manṣur. The surname "al-Jabali" indicates that he came from the province of Jabal, in the neighborhood of Hamadan. According to Ibn...
JABEZ – Eponym of a clan of the Kenite family of the Rechabites, which clan was merged into the tribe of Judah. I Chron. ii. 55 refers to "families of scribes" ("soferim") dwelling at Jabez; while in another passage (ib. iv. 9-10) Jabez...
JACOB, BLESSING OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the chapter containing the prophetic utterances of Jacob concerning the destiny of his twelve sons as the fathers and representatives of the twelve tribes (Gen. xlix. 1-27). It is called thus after...