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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
JACOB BEN HANANEEL SEKILI – Bible commentator and cabalist; lived in the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Minḥat ha-Bikkurim," the first part of which, "Torat ha-Minḥah," is still extant in manuscript (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." Nos....
JACOB B. JACOB HA-KOHEN – Spanish cabalist of the end of the thirteenth century; born at Soria; buried at Segovia; also called Gikatilla, according to Jellinek ("Beiträge zur Gesch. der Kabbala," ii. 49). The cabalist Isaac ha-Kohen of Béziers was his...
JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN – Philosopher; lived at Kairwan in the tenth century; younger contemporary of Saadia. At Jacob's request Sherira Gaon wrote a treatise entitled "Iggeret," on the redaction of the Mishnah. Jacob is credited with the authorship of...
JACOB BEN SHESHET GERONDI – Spanish cabalist of Gerona (whence his surname "Gerondi") in the thirteenth century. He was the author of "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim," a cabalistic essay published by M. Mortara in "Oẓar Neḥmad" (iii. 153 et seq.), and of "Meshib...
JAGEL, GAMALIEL BEN HANANIAH, OF MONSELICE – Italian scholar; lived at Ferrara, later at Parma, in the seventeenth century. He filled the position of chief rabbi or head of the Talmudical schools of the province of Parma. Jagel was the author of "Sifte Renanim," a...
JAMES – Name of three persons prominent in New Testament history. Synagogue at Spanish Town, Jamaica.(From a photograph.)1. Son of Zebedee (Aramaic, "Ya'ḳob bar Zabdai"); with his brother John one of the first disciples of Jesus. Like...
JAMES, GENERAL EPISTLE OF – Letter of exhortation and instruction, written by "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ," and addressed "to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion" (i. 1, R. V.). The writer is supposed to be James, the...
JANNES AND JAMBRES – Names of two legendary wizards of Pharaoh "who withstood Moses" (II Tim. iii. 8) by imitating "with their enchantments" the works of Moses and Aaron, though they were defeated (Ex. vii. 11, viii. 7). According to rabbinical...
JANUARIUS – Talmudic name of a legendary hero; it is taken from the name of the first of the twelve Roman months. R. Johanan, in Yer. 'Ab. Zarah i. 39c, relates as follows: "The governments of Egypt and Rome, having been at war with each...
JAPHETH HA-LEVI – Karaite Bible translator and commentator; flourished at Jerusalem between 950 and 980. He was one of the most able Bible commentators among the Karaites, who distinguished him by the epithet "maskil ha-Golah" (= "teacher of the...
JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN JUDAH LÖB – Rabbi of Berlin; died March, 1728. After filling the office of rabbi in several Polish communities he removed about 1701 to Berlin, where, with his brother-in-law Aaron, he was entrusted with the direction of the yeshibah...
JEREMIAH, EPISTLE OF – A Greek apocryphon, being a fictitious letter which Jeremiah is supposed to have written to the Jews who were about to be led as captives to Babylonia, the purpose of the letter being to warn them against idolatry. It seems to...
JESHUA BEN JUDAH – Karaite exegete and philosopher; flourished, probably at Jerusalem, in the second half of the eleventh century; pupil of Joseph ben Abraham ha-Ro'eh. Jeshua was considered one of the highest authorities among the Karaites, by...
JESUS OF NAZARETH – In History: Founder of Christianity; born at Nazareth about 2 B.C. (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Jerusalem 14th of Nisan, 3789 (March or April, 29 C.E.). His life, though indirectly of so critical a character, had...
JOB, TESTAMENT OF – Greek apocryphal book, containing a haggadic story of Job. It was first published by Angelo Mai in the seventh volume of the "Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio" (pp. 180-191, Rome, 1833), and was translated in Migne's...
JOHN THE BAPTIST – Essene saint and preacher; flourished between 20 and 30 C.E.; fore-runner of Jesus of Nazareth and originator of the Christian movement. Of his life and character Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2) says:"He was a good man...
JOHN OF VALLADOLID – Jewish convert to Christianity; born 1335. An able speaker, and possessed of some knowledge of rabbinical literature, he persuaded King Henry of Castile that he could convince the Jews of the truth of Christianity if they were...
JOLLES, ZECHARIAH ISAIAH B. MORDECAI – Rabbinical scholar and author; born at Lemberg about 1814; died at Minsk, Russia, May 14, 1852. In 1834, after having married the daughter of Jacob Dokshitzer, one of the wealthiest Jews of Minsk, he settled in that city. Jolles...
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN HA-RO'EH – His "Muḥtawi." Karaite philosopher and theologian; flourished in Babylonia or Persia in the first half of the eleventh century; teacher of Joshua ben Judah (Abu al-Faraj Furḳan ibn Asad). By way of euphemism he was surnamed...
JOSEPH OF ARIMATHÆA – Wealthy Jew (probably a member of the Essene fraternity) who, out of sympathy with Jesus, gave him burial in one of the tombs cut in the rocks near the city of Jerusalem. The story is told with some variations in all the...
JOSEPH OF ARLES – French Talmudist and cabalist of the sixteenth century. A letter signed "Joseph " (= "of Arles") is found among the halakic decisions of Menahem Carmi, written in 1584 (Almanzi collection). Joseph is identical with Joseph , who,...
JOSEPH BEN ELIMELECH OF TORBIN – Polish scholar of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Ben Ẓiyyon" (Amsterdam, 1690), containing mnemonic terms for the precepts, formulas of headings of letters, explanations of the accent "zarḳa," ethical...
JOSEPH BEN ISAAC BEKOR SHOR OF ORLEANS – French tosafist, exegete, and poet; flourished in the second half of the twelfth century; pupil of Jacob Tam, Joseph Caro, and Samuel ben Meïr (Rashbam). The identity of Joseph Bekor Shor and the tosafist Joseph ben Isaac of...
JOSEPH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI – Page from the First Edition of the Judæo-German "Yosippon," Zurich, 1546.(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)Lithuanian philosopher of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries....
JOSEPH BEN JUDAH IBN 'AḲNIN – Physician and Poet. Disciple of Moses Maimonides; born about 1160; died 1226. For the first twenty-five years of his life he lived with his father, who was an artisan at Ceuta in Maghreb. His youth fell in the period of the...