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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
LIFE – Biblical Data: The word "ḥayyim" (= "life") denotes first of all the animal existence which, according to Scripture, begins when "the breath [or spirit] of God" ("ruaḥ," "neshamah," or "nefesh") is first inhaled through the...
LIGHT – The primal element of Creation in all ancient cosmogonies; the first creation of God.—Biblical Data: "God said, Let there be light": and out of the primeval chaos there came forth "light" (Gen. i. 2-3). In the Creation psalm,...
LIGHT – The primal element of Creation in all ancient cosmogonies; the first creation of God.—Biblical Data: "God said, Let there be light": and out of the primeval chaos there came forth "light" (Gen. i. 2-3). In the Creation psalm,...
LIGHTNING, BENEDICTION ON – The Mishnah (Ber. ix. 2) prescribes, "At the sight of shooting stars or of lightning, and at hearing earthquakes, thunder, and storms, the benediction 'Blessed be He whose power and might fill the world' should be recited. At...
LOANS, ELIJAH BEN MOSES ASHKENAZI – German rabbi and cabalist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1555; died at Worms July, 1636. He belonged to the Rashi family, and on his mother's side was the grandson of Johanan Luria, and on his father's of Joselmann of Rosheim....
LORD'S PRAYER, THE – Name given by the Christian world to the prayer which Jesus taught his disciples (Matt. vi. 9-13; Luke xi. 1-4). According to Luke the teaching of the prayer was suggested by one of Jesus' disciples who, on seeing him holding...
LORD'S SUPPER – Name taken from I Cor. xi. 20, and given by the Christian world to the rite known as the eucharist, the partaking of the cup of wine and the bread offered in memory of Jesus' death and brought into connection with the story of...
LOVE – The deep affection by which one person feels closely drawn to another and impelled to give up much, or do much, for him without regard of self.—Biblical Data: While the word , like the Greek ἀγάπη, denotes also sensual love...
LUCIFER – Septuagint translation of "Helel [read "Helal"] ben Shaḥar" (= "the brilliant one," "son of the morning"), name of the day, or morning, star, to whose mythical fate that of the King of Babylon is compared in the prophetic vision...
LURIA – A family with wide ramifications and several of whose members were distinguished for mystical tendencies and rabbinical knowledge.Abraham b. Nissan Luria: Russian rabbi and grammarian of the first half of the nineteenth century....
LURIA – A family with wide ramifications and several of whose members were distinguished for mystical tendencies and rabbinical knowledge.Abraham b. Nissan Luria: Russian rabbi and grammarian of the first half of the nineteenth century....
LUZ – 1. Older name of the city of Beth-el (Gen. xxviii. 19, xxxv. 6, xlviii. 3; Josh. xvi. 2, xviii. 13; Judges i. 23).2. Name of a city in the land of the Hittites, built by an emigrant from Beth-el, who was spared and sent abroad...
LUZKI, SIMḤAH ISAAC BEN MOSES – Karaite writer and bibliographer; born at Lutsk at the end of the seventeenth century; died, according to Firkovich, at Chufut-Kale, Crimea, or, according to another source, at Lutsk, March, 1766. He was well versed in...
LYING – Telling a falsehood with the intent of deceiving.—Biblical Data: Lying is most vigorously condemned in the Law: "Keep thee far from a false matter" (Ex. xxiii. 7); "Neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another" (Lev. xix....
MAIMON, SOLOMON BEN JOSHUA – Early Studies. Philosophical writer; born at Nieszwicz, Lithuania, in 1754; died at Niedersiegersdorf, Silesia, Nov. 22, 1800. Endowed with greaty ability, he became versed in rabbinical literature while still a child. He was...
MAN, SON OF – Individual of the species man; synonym of "man." While "ben enosh" occurs only in Ps. cxliv. 3, the term "ben adam" is found exclusively in poetic (Num. xxiii. 19; Ps. viii. 5 [A. V. 4]) and prophetic passages (Isa. li. 12; Jer....
– Mosaic Map of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at Medeba. (Plan of Jerusalem, Enlarged, in Upper Right-Hand Corner.)An agent that goes between; one who interposes between parties at variance; in particular, an...
MELCHIZEDEK – King of Salem and priest of the Most High in the time of Abraham. He brought out bread and wine, blessed Abram, and received tithes from him (Gen. xiv. 18-20). Reference is made to him in Ps. cx. 4, where the victorious ruler is...
MEMORIAL SERVICE – Prayer for the dead is mentioned as early as the last pre-Christian century (see II Macc. xii. 44), and a sacrifice for the dead, probably given in the form of charity, was known in Talmudic time (Sifre, Deut. 210; Hor. 6a). The...
MEMRA – The Word," in the sense of the creative or directive word or speech of God manifesting His power in the world of matter or mind; a term used especially in the Targum as a substitute for "the Lord" when an anthropomorphic...
MENAHEM THE ESSENE – Prominent teacher of the Essene faction in the time of King Herod, about the middle of the first pre-Christian century. He was renowned for his prophetic powers. According to Josephus ("Ant." xv. 10, § 5), he was distinguished...
MENAHEM B. MICHAEL B. JOSEPH HA-ḲARA'I – Karaite philosopher and poet; born in Babylon; a contemporary of Saadia. He corresponded with David al-Muḳammaṣ, whom he had met in Babylon, on philosophical subjects, and perhaps also regarding the Karaite "sheḥiṭah."...
MERKABAH – The Heavenly Throne; hence "Ma'aseh Merkabah," the lore concerning the heavenly Throne-Chariot, with especial reference to Ezek. i. and x. The conception of Yhwh riding upon cherubim, or fiery cloud-birds, upon the heavens or...
MICHAEL BEN SHABBETHAI – Rabbi of Rome in the sixteenth century. In a decision of 1539 his signature reads "Michael b. Shabbethai ," the last word being the name of a place in Africa whence probably Michael's ancestors originated, and becoming when...
MIRACLE – An event which can not be explained by ordinary natural agencies, and which, therefore, is taken as an act of a higher power.Miracles are by no means identical with myths. Myths are primitive or pagan personifications (or rather...