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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
MOSES – Biblical Data: The birth of Moses occurred at a time when Pharaoh had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew captives should be thrown into the Nile (Ex. ii.; comp. i.). Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a...
MOSES ḤASID – Austrian ethical writer; lived at Prague in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of a "Ẓawwa'ah," containing ethical instructions (Prague, 1717), a portion of which, under the title "Iggeret ha-Musar," was...
MOSES OF PARIS – Exegete; lived in the middle of the twelfth century. According to Gross, he is identical with Moses ben Jehiel ben Mattathiah, the head of the Jewish community of Paris, of whom the Maḥzor Vitry (No. 280) tells the story that he...
MUDAWWAR, ABU AL-BAYAN IBN AL – Karaite court physician to the last Egyptian Fatimite califs and later to Saladin, who pensioned him when he was sixty-three years old; born 1101; died at Cairo 1184. During the twenty years of his retirement his house was...
NAPHTALI HERZ BEN JACOB ELHANAN – German cabalist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the second half of the sixteenth century. He lived in Palestine and was a disciple of Isaac Luria. He was the author of: "'Emeḳ ha-Melek," an introduction to the Cabala and a...
NASI – The president of the Sanhedrin. According to the rabbinical tradition (Ḥag. ii. 2; Peah ii. 6), the Sanhedrin was presided over by a duumvirate ("zug" = "zeugos" [couple]), of which the first was the nasi, the second the ab bet...
NATIONS AND LANGUAGES, THE SEVENTY – In the Book of Jubilees. The haggadic assumption that there are seventy nations and languages in the world is based upon the ethnological table given in Gen. x., where seventy grandsons of Noah are enumerated, each of whom...
NEHEMIAH HA-KOHEN – Polish cabalist and Shabbethaian preacher; died at Amsterdam shortly after 1690, or, according to another account, in Poland in 1682. Owing to Nehemiah's wide knowledge of the Cabala he was sent by the Polish communities in 1666...
NEW MOON – The period of New Moon was, in pre-exilic times, celebrated by cessation of labor; it was superior even to the Sabbath-day, which formed but a part of it (see I Sam. xx. 18-34; II Kings iv. 23; Amos viii. 5; Hos. ii. 13 [A. V....
NEW TESTAMENT – Historical Books: The name of "New Testament" was given by the Christian Church, at the close of the second century, to the gospels and to other apostolic writings, inasmuch as they were composed with the purpose of showing that...
NICODEMUS – Prominent member of the Sanhedrin, and a man of wealth; lived in Jerusalem in the first century C.E. He is mentioned in John iii. 1-21, vii. 50, xix. 39. In the first of these passages he is represented as "a ruler of the Jews"...
NIGRIN (NEGRIN), MOSES – Cabalist; lived in Safed early in the sixteenth century; a contemporary of Moses di Trani. He is chiefly known as a commentator, and was the author of notes on Jonah Gerondi's ethical work "Sefer ha-Yir'ah," and on the same...
NISSI BEN NOAH – Karaite scholar; lived at Bassora, later at Jerusalem, in the eighth century. He is believed to have been the son of Abu Nissi Noah, who is given in the Karaite tradition as a contemporary and senior of Anan. In the introduction...
NOMISM – That religious tendency which aims at the control of both social and individual life by legalism, making the law the supreme norm. The term "nomism" or "legalism" is sometimes used to imply an externalizing tendency of religion...
OMEN – Occurrence or incident regarded as fore-shadowing a favorable or unfavorable issue in a certain conjuncture. The belief in prognostic signs is closely connected with Divination and mantic, from which it is distinguished,...
OPHITES – Collective name for several Gnostic sects which regarded the serpent (Greek, ὄφις; Hebrew, "naḥash"; hence called also Naasseni) as the image of creative wisdom. Such sects existed within Judaism probably even before the rise of...
PARACLETE – Rabbinical term adopted from the Greek παράκλητός (= "advocate," "intercessor"): Targumic translation of (Job xvi. 20, xxxiii. 23): "He who performs one good deed has gotten to himself one advocate [paraclete], and he who...
PATIENCE – The Hebrew Scriptures have many words for "patience," corresponding to the varied meanings of this complex virtue; e.g., "erek af" (long-suffering), the patience exhibited in the restraining of justifiable anger (Prov. xiv. 29,...
PENTECOST – Name given by the Greek-speaking Jews to the festival which occurred fifty days (ἡ πεντηκόστη, sc. ἡΜέρα = "Ḥag Ḥamishshim Yom"; comp. Lev. xxiii. 16) after the offering of the barley sheaf during the Passover feast (Tobit ii....
PENTECOST – Name given by the Greek-speaking Jews to the festival which occurred fifty days (ἡ πεντηκόστη, sc. ἡΜέρα = "Ḥag Ḥamishshim Yom"; comp. Lev. xxiii. 16) after the offering of the barley sheaf during the Passover feast (Tobit ii....
PEREZ B. ISAAC COHEN GERONDI – Cabalist. The surname "Gerondi" is due to an unwarranted deduction by Jellinek ("Beiträge zur Gesch. der Kabbalah," ii. 64), and is used for the purpose of describing more in detail the author of "Ma'areket ha-Elahut." A certain...
PHARISEES – Party representing the religious views, practises, and hopes of the kernel of the Jewish people in the time of the Second Temple and in opposition to the priestly Sadducees. They were accordingly scrupulous observers of the Law...
PLEIADES – The word "Kimah," which occurs in three passages in the Bible (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 31, and Amos v. 8), each time in connection with Orion, is translated by the Septuagint once by Πλειάδα (Job xxxviii. 31); and Aquila, who...
POCHOWITZER (PUCHOWITZER), JU-DAH LÖB BEN JOSEPH – Russian rabbi and preacher; flourished at Pinsk in the latter part of the seventeenth century; died in Palestine, whither he went before 1681. He was the author of: "Ḳench Ḥokmah" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1681), a work consisting...
POPPÆA SABINA – Mistress and, after 62 C.E., second wife of the emperor Nero; died 65. She had a certain predilection for Judaism, and is characterized by Josephus ("Ant." xx. 8, § 11; "Vita," § 3) as θεοσεβής ("religious"). Some Jews, such as...