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Ludwig Blau, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary; Editor of "Magyar Zsidó Szemle"; Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ABRAXAS – A term of Gnostic magic, of uncertain etymology. According to Irenæus ("Adversus Hæreses," i. 24, 3-7), the Gnostic Basilides (died about 130) gave the name of Abraxas to the highest Being, who presides over the 364 kingdoms of...
AMULET – Origin of the Word. The word "Amulet" used to be considered as derived from an imaginary Arabic word "hamalet" (something hung on); but it is in reality an ancient Latin word of unknown etymology. It is found several times in...
ANGELOLOGY – Biblical, Talmudical, and Post-Talmudical: Angelology is that branch of theology which treats of angels. Angels (from αγγελōς = messenger, Greek equivalent of the Hebrew ) are according to the usual conception superhuman beings...
ASTROLOGY – Biblical. See Astronomy, Biblical.Terminology. —In the Apocrypha and in the Talmud: Neither (Isa. xlvii. 13), which the Greek translation renders "astrologers," nor (Dan. ii. 27 et seq.), the technical designation for the...
ASTRONOMY – Biblical Data: Biblical Astronomy, in the broad sense, includes the views taken in the books of the Bible of the position of the earth in the universe, the designation of the stars, planets, fixed stars, and the views held...
AUGURY – Originally, prophesying by the flight of birds; but later the term was applied to all forms of foretelling (augur = avi-gur, οἰωνὸς, οἰωνισταί, etc.).Augury was first systematized by the Chaldeans. The Greeks were addicted to...
BAT ḲOL – A heavenly or divine voice which proclaims God's will or judgment, His deeds and His commandments to individuals or to a number of persons, to rulers, communities, and even to whole nations. The meaning of the word is "sound,"...
BIBLE CANON – 1. Meaning and Scope. The Greek word κανών, meaning primarily a straight rod, and derivatively a norm or law, was first applied by the church fathers (not earlier than 360) to the collection of Holy Scriptures, and primarily to...
BRILL, SAMUEL LÖW – Hungarian rabbi and Talmudical scholar; born Sept. 14, 1814, in Budapest; died April 8, 1897. He was carefully educated by his father, Azriel Brill (1778-1853), who was teacher and associate rabbi at Pest, and the author of...
DEATH, ANGEL OF – Biblical Data: In the Bible death is viewed under form of an angel sent from God, a being deprived of all voluntary power. The "angel of the Lord" smites 185,000 men in the Assyrian camp (II Kings xix. 35). "The destroyer"...
DREAMS – Biblical Data: Dreams have at all times and among all peoples received much attention. In the youth of a nation, as in the youth of an individual, dreams are so vivid that they appear to be hardly distinguishable from reality....
DWARF – Bible. —Biblical Data: The rendering in A. V. of (Lev. xxi. 20, literally "thin"), denoting one of the physical disqualifications of priests for the service. In this sense is taken by Targ. Yer. ( ) and Ibn Ezra ad loc. (comp....
EVIL EYE – A supposed power of bewitching or harming by spiteful looks, attributed to certain persons as a natural endowment. The belief that a glance can damage life and property is wide-spread among both savage and civilized peoples (for...
EXORCISM – The expulsion of evil spirits by spells; in Greek ἐκβάλλειν (Matt. viii. 16, 31; ix. 34, 38; Mark i. 34, 38; ix. 38; Luke xiii. 32; and elsewhere). See Demonology; and compare the sorcery-papyrus in Paris, line 1257, εκβαλειν...
EYE – Biblical Data: This important organ is mentioned more than 800 times in the Bible, but is described only in its external appearance and significance, according to the experience of daily life. The following parts are mentioned:...
GABRIEL – With Michael, Gabriel is mentioned by name in the Book of Daniel, where he explains to Daniel his visions (Dan. viii. 16-26, ix. 21-27). He appears to Zacharias, and announces to Mary that she is about to have a son whose name...
GEHENNA – Nature and Situation. The place where children were sacrificed to the god Moloch was originally in the "valley of the son of Hinnom," to the south of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 8, passim; II Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. ii. 23; vii. 31-32;...
GILYONIM – Term used by the scribes flourishing between 100 and 135 to denote the Gospels. The designation as used by them did not imply any mockery; R. Meïr, who flourished after 135, a descendant of Greek proselytes, was the first to...
GNOSTICISM – An esoteric system of theology and philosophy. It presents one of the most obscure and complicated problems in the general history of religion. It forced itself into prominence in the first centuries of the common era, and the...
GOLEM – Embryo. This word occurs only once in the Bible, in Ps. cxxxix. 16, where it means "embryo." In tradition everything that is in a state of incompletion, everything not fully formed, as a needle without the eye, is designated as...
GÜDEMANN, MORITZ – Austrian rabbi; born at Hildesheim, Germany, Feb. 19, 1835. He was educated at Breslau (Ph.D. 1858), and took his rabbinical diploma (1862) at the Jewish Theological Seminary of that city. In the latter year he was called to the...
HOLY SPIRIT – Biblical View of the Spirit. The most noticeable difference between sentient beings and dead things, between the living and the dead, is in the breath. Whatever lives breathes; whatever is dead does not breathe. Aquila, by...
IMMANUEL – This name occurs only thrice in the Bible, in Isa. vii. 14 and viii. 8, 10 (in the last-cited verse the rendering "God is with us" is given in the English versions). According to the Targum Yerushalmi, "Immanuel" in the first...
INCANTATION – The invocation of magical powers. All peoples, civilized as well as savage, have believed and still believe in magical influences and effects. The chief means of harming or of protecting from harm was the utterance of some word...
LANDESRABBINERSCHULE IN BUDAPEST (Országos Rabbiképzö Intézet) – The efforts to found a rabbinical seminary in Hungary reach back to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The various projects, however, did not receive tangible form until a Jewish school fund had been created by King...