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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
AUERBACH (JUDAH), LOEB B. ISRAEL – Galician Talmudist of the second half of the eighteenth century. He is the author of "Meḥoḳeḳ Yehudah" (The Lawgiver of Judah), Lemberg, 1792, a commentary on those sections of the Oraḥ Ḥayyim of Joseph Caro's Shulḥan 'Aruk...
AUERBACH, MEIR B. ISAAC – Talmudist and chief rabbi of the Ashkenazim in Jerusalem; born Feb. 10, 1815, at Dobria near Kalish, Russian Poland; died May 8, 1878, at Jerusalem. He was rabbi at Kalish when, in 1860, actuated by his love for the Holy Land,...
AUERBACH, PEREZ B. MENAHEM NAHUM – Polish Talmudist; flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the author of the work, "Peër Halakah" (Ornament of the Halakah), Zolkiev, 1738, which contains novellæ to the Talmud, to the commentaries on the...
AUERBACH, PHINEAS BEN SIMON WOLF – Rabbi and Talmudist; lived at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth century. He was chief of the court of justice at Cracow ("bet din"), but on account of the persecutions of the Jews in Poland he was forced...
AUERBACH, SAMUEL B. DAVID TEBELE – A cabalistic commentator on the Bible; flourished in the seventeenth century. His father, David, died as a martyr during the persecution of the Jews in Poland, and he himself narrowly escaped a similar fate, first at Lublin,...
AUERBACH, SIMON (ZE'EB) WOLF B. DAVID TEBELE – Talmudist and rabbi of several large communities; born at Posen about 1550; died Nov. 12, 1631, at Prague. His father was either rabbi or, at least, an eminent Talmudic authority in Posen; and his father-in-law was Solomon b....
AUERBACH, SOLOMON HEYMANN – Hebrew scholar; born at Posen at the end of the eighteenth century; died there in 1836. He translated Habakkuk into German with explanatory notes (Breslau, 1821). He also collaborated in the translation of the Bible undertaken...
AUGUSTINE – His Complex Character. The greatest and most important of the Latin church fathers; born Nov. 13, 354, at Tagaste, a town of Numidia; died at Hippo Aug. 28, 430. After a riotous youth as a heathen, he became first a devotee of...
AVENGER OF BLOOD – Biblical Data: (Hebrew "go'el"): The Hebrew name for the clansman, "next of kin," upon whom devolved the duties: (1) of avenging, on the person of the murderer, the blood of a murdered kinsman—in this capacity the more specific...
AVILA, ELIEZER B. SAMUEL DE – Author of rabbinical works, and rabbi at Rabat, Morocco; born 1714; died at Rabat Feb. 7, 1761. Avila was a scion of an illustrious family of scholars. His father Samuel, his grandfather Moses, and Ḥayyim b. Moses ibn Attar, his...
AVILA, SAMUEL BEN SOLOMON DE – Talmudist; lived at Morocco in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "'Oz we-Hadar" (Might and Splendor), Leghorn, 1855, containing novellæ on the Talmudic treatises Shebu'ot, 'Abodah Zarah, and Horayot.Bibliography:...
AYLLON, SOLOMON BEN JACOB – Haham of the Sephardic congregations in London and Amsterdam and follower of Shabbethai Ẓebi; born in the Orient 1664 (1660 ?); died in Amsterdam April 10, 1728. His name is derived from a town in the Spanish province Segovia of...
AYYAS, JACOB MOSES – Son of Judah Ayyas; lived at Jerusalem, whence he was sent abroad to collect money for the Palestine poor. In 1783 he visited Algiers, where he was received with great honor. Following a call to Ferrara, he settled there as...
AZARIAH – Biblical Data: The name given to twenty-six different persons in the Old Testament. The most important are:1. A noble in the court of Solomon. According to I Kings iv. 2, he was the son of Zadok the priest. I Chron. v. 35 [A. V....
AZARIAH – Biblical Data: The name given to twenty-six different persons in the Old Testament. The most important are:1. A noble in the court of Solomon. According to I Kings iv. 2, he was the son of Zadok the priest. I Chron. v. 35 [A. V....
AZARIAH, MENAHEM HA-KOHEN – Author and translator; born at Fürth, Germany; flourished at Amsterdam in 1727. He edited Eliezer ha-Ḳaṭan's (his father-in-law's) "Shulḥan 'Aruk," an extract from the first volume of the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Fürth, 1696-97. Appended...
AZULAI, AZULAY – A family descended from Spanish exiles who, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, settled in the city of Fez, Morocco. Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai (see No. 4) derives the family name from the initials of the Hebrew...
BA'AL – Hebrew word for possessor or owner of an object. In connection with many nouns, it expresses some relation between the person and an object. Many of these combinations are found in Bible phraseology, and are still used,...
BAAL-BERITH – Biblical Data ("the Ba'al of the Covenant"): A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R....
BAAL-PEOR – Name of a Canaanitish god. Peor was a mountain in Moab (Num. xxiii. 28), whence the special locality Beth-peor (Deut. iii. 29, etc.) was designated. It gave its name to the Ba'al who was there worshiped, and to whose service...
BA'AL SHEM – Designation of certain people who were supposed to work miracles through the name of God. This belief in the miraculous power of the Sacred Name is very old, having a history that covers more than two thousand years (compare...
BA'AL SHEM-ṬOB, ISRAEL B. ELIEZER – Founder of the sect of Ḥasidim; born about 1700; died at Miedzyboz (Medzhibozh), May 22, 1760. The little biographical information concerning him that exists is so interwoven with legends and miracles that in many cases it is...
BAAL-ZEPHON – Biblical Data: An Egyptian locality in the neighborhood of the Red Sea. In spite of all attempted combinations (Dillmann-Ryssell on Ex. xiv. 2) its situation is still unknown. An Egyptian god, B'irati Dapuna—that is, Ba'alat...
BABEL, TOWER OF – Biblical Data: The story of the building of the city and the Tower of Babel as found in Gen. xi. 1-9 is briefly as follows: The whole human race spoke one and the same language, and formed one community. This community or clan...
BACHARACH, ABRAHAM AARON B. MENAHEM MAN (= AARON MANELES) – Writer on religious subjects, and cantor of Posen, hence known also as Aaron Ḥazzan; flourished during the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Urim we-Tummim" (Enlightenment and Perfection), an exhortation to morality and...