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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
BACHARACH, ABRAHAM SAMUEL – Rabbi; born about 1575; died in Gernsheim, grandduchy of Hesse, May 26, 1615. He seems to have come from the city of Worms, but is first met with at Prague, where, in 1600, he married Eva, the granddaughter of the chief rabbi of...
BACHARACH, EVA – Hebraist and rabbinical scholar; born at Prague about 1580; died in Sofia, 1651. She was the daughter of Isaac ben Simson ha-Kohen, and through her mother, Vögele, granddaughter of the well-known rabbi of Prague, Löwe ben...
BACHARACH, JAIR ḤAYYIM – His Rabbinical Career. German rabbi; born at Leipnik, Moravia, 1639; died in Worms Jan. 1, 1702. At the age of twelve he came with his father, Samson, to Worms (1653), and two years later married Särlan, the daughter of Sussman...
BACHARACH, MICHAEL – Dayyan in Prague in the second half of the eighteenth century.Bibliography: Eisenstadt, Da'at Ḳedoshim, p. 224; Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash, i. 90; Löw, Gesammelte Schriften, ii. 263.L. G. I. Ber.
BACHARACH, MOSES SAMSON – Son of Samuel and Eva Bacharach; born in 1607; died at Worms April 19, 1670. After the death of his father his mother took him to Prague, where he was educated by his maternal uncle, Ḥayyim ha-Kohen. In 1627 he married Dobrusch,...
BACHER, SIMON – Neo-Hebraic poet; born Feb. 1, 1823, in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary died at Budapest Nov. 9, 1891. Bacher, whose name was originally Bachrach, came of a family of scholars, and counted as one of his ancestors the well-known Jair...
BACHI, RAPHAEL – Italian miniature-painter; lived at Paris in the middle of the eighteenth century. His name appears in the list of the Jews that resided in Paris during the reign of Louis XV., which was recently published by Paul d'Estrées....
BACHRACH, JACOB BEN MOSES – A noted apologist of rabbinical Judaism; born at Seiny, inthe government of Suwalki, Russia, May 9, 1824; died in Bielostok Dec. 29, 1896. He received his earliest instruction from his grandfather, Judah Bachrach. For years he...
BACHRACH, JUDAH B. JOSHUA HESKIEL – Rabbi and Talmudist; born in Lithuania about 1775; died at Seiny, government of Suwalki, April 25, 1846. He was a lineal descendant in the seventh generation of Tobias Bachrach, who, together with Israel ben Shalom, was beheaded...
BAER, DOB B. SAMUEL – Polish Ḥasidic writer of the end of the eighteenth century. He is the author of "Shibḥei ha-Besht" (Praises of Israel Ba'al Shem-Ṭob), which his son Judah Löb published after his death, in 1815. The book, which is a collection...
BAER, ISSACHAR BEN SOLOMON – Biblical and rabbinical commentator; died at Wilna in 1807. He was the brother of Elijah b. Solomon, the Wilna gaon, and like him was distinguished for simplicity and lucidity in commenting on Biblical and rabbinical topics....
BAER (DOB) OF MESERITZ – His Early Asceticism. First apostle of Ḥasidism and its most important propagator; born in Volhynia in 1710; died in Meseritz, Dec. 15, 1772. Little is known of Baer's youth, and scarcely more of the interval preceding his...
BAER (DOB) BEN SHRAGA – Author; lived in Berlin at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Naḥale Debash" (Streams of Honey), Berlin, 1832, which contains many extracts from various Hebrew books dealing mainly with philosophical and ethical...
BAER (DOB) BEN URI PHŒBUS – Author, of the eighteenth century. He resided at Altona, Germany, where in 1737 he wrote "Be'er-Ṭob" (A Good Explanation), containing casuistic and homiletical explanations to the Talmud.L. G. J. Ch.
BAḤUR – A youth," particularly a student of the Talmud among the Ashkenazic Jews; called also "yeshibah baḥur" (academy youth), and in Yiddish, "orem boḥer" (poor young man). In Biblical Hebrew the word signifies an adult but unmarried...
BAKI, SIMSON – 1. Born either in Germany or Italy, and very probably related to the Bachi family, members of which flourished successively at Vercelli and Casale. He lived about 1582-84, and wrote at these dates from Safed and Jerusalem three...
BAKING – Biblical Data: The bread of the ancient Hebrews, like that of the Palestinians today, was not in the shape of thick loaves, but of thin cakes (see Bread). Originally these were baked by kindling a fire on the sand or on small...
BALAK – Biblical Data: According to Num. xxii.-xxiv., Balak was king of Moab when the Israelites emerged from their wanderings in the wilderness to the conquest of the East Jordanic land. Alarmed by the victories and numbers of the...
BAMBERG, SAMUEL – Halakist and liturgist; lived about 1220. He was born in Metz, where he attended the rabbinical school, and was one of the best-known German Talmudic scholars. His teachers were his father, Baruch ben Samuel, the well-known poet...
BAMBERGER, SELIGMAN BAER – An Enthusiastic Student. Talmudist of the old school and leader of the Orthodox party in Germany; born at Wiesenbronn, near Kitzingen, Bavaria, Nov. 6, 1807; died at Würzburg Oct. 13,1878. His strictly Orthodox parents sent him,...
BAMPI, ISSACHAR DOB BAER – Scholar and philanthropist; born 1823 at Minsk, Russia; died there March 10, 1888. He received a thorough Biblical and Talmudical education, was a good Hebraist, and every day for the last thirty years of his life lectured on a...
BANNAAH, BANNAY, BANNAYAH – A Palestinian semi-tanna (see Bar Ḳappara) at the beginning of the third century. Not much of a halakic nature from him has been preserved; but he is distinguished as one of the great haggadists of his time. Probably he also...
BANNAIM – A supposed sect of an Essene order, among Palestinian Jews of the second century. The only passage in which the name occurs is Miḳwaot ix. 6 (Tosef. ib. vi. 14 [vii. 1]), where the following Halakah is recorded by a tanna of the...
BAR ANINA – Palestinian scholar of the end of the fourth century; lived in Bethlehem, where he was the teacher of the church father Jerome. The Talmudic and Midrashic literature mentions many halakists and haggadists whose fathers were...
BAR ḲAPPARA – Palestinian scholar of the beginning of the third century, occupying an intermediate position between tanna and amora. His real and complete name was Eleazar (there seems to be no ground for the form "Eliezer") ben Eleazar...