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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
BAR SHALMON – Legendary son-in-law of Ashmedai, king of the demons. Bar Shalmon, the scholarly and pious son of a rich merchant who had accumulated great wealth through maritime ventures, promised his father under oath, when the latter was on...
BAR YOKNI – A gigantic bird mentioned several times in the Talmud. An authority at the beginning of the third century, in relating a number of wonders, says that this bird was so large that once one of its eggs dropping from a height...
BARAITA – Definition. An Aramaic word designating a tannaite tradition not incorporated in the Mishnah; later it was applied also to collections of such traditions ("Barayata," plural of Baraita). The Aramaic form is , which in an old...
BARAITA ON THE (TREATISE) ABOT – A Baraita consisting of eleven paragraphs on the excellences of the Torah and on the right way to become acquainted with it. This Baraita claims to be a supplement to the treatise Abot, having as a superscription the words: "The...
BARAITA OF R. ADA – A Baraita on the calendar. The only one who speaks of such a Baraita is Abraham b. Ḥiyya ha-Nassi ("Sefer ha-'Ibbur," iii. 4), to whom probably are to be ascribed the words on the Baraita which occur in the commentary by Obadiah...
BARAITA ON THE CREATION – 1. See Ma'aseh Bereshit.2. Under the title , L. Goldschmidt published a work (Strasburg, 1894) which he gave out to be an Aramaic apocryphon. But A. Epstein ("Monatsschrift," xxxviii. 479) has shown that it is a spurious work by...
BARAITA OF R. ELIEZER – The customary name for the PirḲe R. Eliezer among the older scholars, as Rashi and in the 'Aruk. Some recent scholars follow their example in using this title.J. Sr. L. G.
BARAITA ON THE ERECTION OF THE TABERNACLE – A Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the 'Aruk, as well as in Rashi, Yalḳut, and Maimonides. Rashi calls it a Mishnah. It treats in fourteen sections (in the Munich MS., sections i. and ii....
BARAITA OF THE FORTY-NINE RULES – Rashi, the Tosafists, Abraham ibn Ezra, Yalḳut, and Asher ben Jehiel mention a work, "Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules," and make citations from it (thus, Rashi, ed. Berliner, on Ex. xxvi. 5; Yalḳ., Gen. 61, calls it "Midrash";...
BARAITA OF R. ISHMAEL – A Baraita which explains the thirteen rules of R. Ishmael, and their application, by means of illustrations from the Bible. The name is inaccurately given also to the first part of the Baraita, which only enumerates the thirteen...
BARAITA OF R. JOSE – Name given by some of the old scholars to the Seder 'Olam Rabbah. Concerning another Baraita of the same name, see Brüll, "Jahrbücher," v. 99.J. Sr. L. G.
BARAITA OF JOSEPH B. UZZIEL – A cabalistic Baraita, several times mentioned by Recanati. It is in manuscript form at Oxford, and is a commentary to the Sefer Yeẓirah (compare Joseph b. Uzziel).J. Jr. L. G.
BARAITA ON THE MYSTERY OF THE CALCULATION OF THE CALENDAR – A Baraita cited in the Talmud (R. H. 20b). Since special care was taken to keep it secret, it has not been preserved; but it is probable that the Baraita of Samuel incorporated a considerable portion of it. The Talmud citation...
BARAITA DE-NIDDAH – This Baraita, expressly mentioned by Naḥmanides, and probably known to the Geonim and the German-French Talmudists of the thirteenth century, was until recently supposed to be lost. It was not published until 1890, when it was...
BARAITA OF R. PHINEHAS B. JAIR – 1. See Midrash Tadshe.2. A Baraita printed by Grünhut, in "Sefer ha-Liḳḳuṭim," ii. 20b-21a. It contains the sayings of R. Phinehas b. Jair and R. Eliezer ha-Gadol on the Messianic times and on the various degrees of piety given...
BARAITA ON SALVATION – A haggadic Baraita, which Schönblum (Lemberg, 1877) published for the first time in the collection "Sheloshah Sefarim Niftaḥim." It enumerates twenty-four sins which delay the [Messianic] salvation and prolong "the end"...
BARAITA OF SAMUEL – A Baraita of Samuel was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the tenth century to Simon Duran in the fifteenth century; and citations from it were made by them. It was considered as lost until quite recently, when...
BARAITA OF THE THIRTY-TWO RULES – A Baraita giving the thirty-two hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted. Abul-Walid ibn Janaḥ is the oldest authority who drew upon this Baraita, but he did not mention it by name. Rashi makes frequent use...
BARAK – Biblical Data: A warrior; the son of Abinoam mentioned in Judges iv. 6, v. 12, as the most important ally of Deborah in the struggle against the Canaanites. Deborah summoned Barak, the son of Abinoam, from his home at Kedesh in...
BARBY, MEÏR B. SAUL – Talmudist and rabbi; born about 1725 at Barby, a small city near Halberstadt, Prussia; died July 28, 1789, at Presburg. His father, a tradesman, was so poor that when he took Meïr, a weak, thirteen-year-old boy, to the yeshibah...
BARIT, JACOB – Russian Talmudist and communal worker; born at Simno, government of Suwalki, Sept. 12, 1797; died at Wilna March 6, 1883. He lost his parents early in life, and at the age of fourteen came to the city of Kovno, where he studied...
BARUCH – 1. Son of Zabbai or Zaccai, who took part in strengthening the wall of Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah (Neh. iii. 20).2. A priest who signed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. x. 7).3. A Judahite whose son Maaseiah was a...
BARUCH – 1. Son of Zabbai or Zaccai, who took part in strengthening the wall of Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah (Neh. iii. 20).2. A priest who signed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh. x. 7).3. A Judahite whose son Maaseiah was a...
BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF (Greek) – An apocryphal work, in which Baruch, the disciple of Jeremiah, gives an account of the revelation which he received in heaven. The existence of this work (which is wholly different from the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch published...
BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF (Syriac) – A pseudepigraphic work in which Baruch narrates his experiences during the periods just before and after the destruction of the Temple, and gives an account of the revelations received by him concerning the future. With the...