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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
BET DIN – Rabbinical term for court-house or court. In view of the theocratic conception of the law, which pervades Biblical legislation and is strictly carried out by rabbinical Judaism, including both civil and religious law, the bet...
BET-TALMUD – Hebrew monthly review, devoted to Talmudical and rabbinical studies and literature; founded in 1881 by Isaac Hirsch Weiss and Meïr Friedmann, at Vienna, and published by the former until its discontinuance in 1886.Besides the...
BETH-SHEMESH – Biblical Data: A city of the hill-country between Judea and the coast on the southern side of Wadi Sarâar, called to-day 'Ain Shems. According to Josh. xix. 41, it was one of the cities of Dan, and according to Josh. xv. 10, it...
BETHUEL – Biblical Data: 1. According to Gen. xxii. 22, a descendant of Arphaxad (compare Gen. xi. 13-22). He was the son of Nahor and Milcah, and father of Laban and Rebekah. Since in Gen. xxv. 20 and xxviii. 2, 5, Bethuel is called "the...
BEZALEL – Biblical Data: In Ex. xxxi. 1-6, the chief architect of the Tabernacle. Elsewhere in the Bible the name occurs only in the genealogical lists of the Book of Chronicles, but according to cuneiform inscriptions a variant form of...
BEZALEL B. JOSEPH (YOSEL) – Russian Talmudist and rabbi at Orlo, government of Grodno, at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He is the author of a collection of responsa, which he published in 1807 at Byelostok.Bibliography: Benjacob, Oẓar...
BEZALEL B. JUDAH HA-LEVI OF ZOLKIEV – Polish Talmudist of the second half of the eighteenth century. He wrote a commentary to the sayings of the fathers (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1781), entitled "Bezalel."Bibliography: Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books British Museum, p. 95;...
BEZALEL B. MOSES HA-KOHEN – Talmudist; born at Wilna, Russia, Jan. 14, 1820, where he died April 13, 1878. He was a competent Talmudist at the age of eighteen, and felt himself qualified to criticize the "Mishkenot Ya'akob" of Jacob b. Aaron of Karlin, one...
BIALEH, ẒEBI HIRSCH BEN NAPHTALI HERZ – Rabbi and Talmudist; born about 1670 at Lemberg, Galicia; died Sept. 25, 1748, at Halberstadt, Prussia. He conducted a Talmudic high school in his native city until 1718, when he received a call as chief rabbi to the rich...
Bibliography – The science that deals with the description and classification of books. As applied to books of Jewish interest, it includes (a) Hebraica, or books written or printed in Hebrew characters; and (b) Judaica, or books in other...
BIGAMY – Biblical Data. See Polygamy.—In Rabbinical Literature: According to Merrill's "Encyclopedia of Law," ii. 192, bigamy consists in "going through the ceremony of marriage with another while a former husband or wife is still alive...
BILHAH – Biblical Data: Rachel's handmaid, given by Rachel as a concubine to Jacob, to whom, according to Gen. xxx. 3 (compare Gen. xxix. 29, xxxvii. 2), she bore Dan and Naphtali upon Rachel's knees. The expression signifies that...
BILSHAN – Biblical Data: One of the important men who came to Jerusalem from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii 2; Neh. vii. 7). In I Esd. v. 8 he is called "Beelsarus," which points to the form Belshar (= "Belshar-uṣṣur"=O Bel, protect the...
BING, ABRAHAM – German rabbi and Talmudist; born in 1752 at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in 1841 at Würzburg, Bavaria, where he had been chief rabbi until his resignation at the beginning of 1839. Before officiating at Würzburg, he was rabbi at...
BIRDS – Biblical Data: The general designation for winged animals is "'of" ( , Hosea ix. 11; Isa. xvi. 2) or "'of kanaf" ( , Gen. i. 21), "ẓippor" ( , Gen. xv. 10), or "ẓippor kanaf" ( , Deut. iv. 17; Ps. cxlviii. 10), or "ba'al kanaf"...
BIRTHRIGHT – Biblical Data: The right of possession into which the eldest son is born. The first son born to the father occupied a prominent place in the Hebrew family (Gen. xxvii. 19, xxxv. 23, xli. 51, xlix. 3; II Sam. iii. 2). Such a one...
BISHKA, NAḤMAN BEN BENJAMIN COHEN ẒEDEḲ – Russian Talmudist; lived in the second half of the eighteenth century. Together with his brother, Shabbetai Bishka, he wrote the "Shebet Aḥim" (The Brothers' Sitting), essays on different passages of the Talmud, with an appendix...
BISTRITZ, ḲALMAN KOHN – Hungarian Neo-Hebraic poet; lived at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the author of the Purim drama "Goral ha-Ẓaddiḳim" (The Lot of the Righteous), which appeared in Vienna, 1821. He belonged to the same family as...
BISTRITZ, MEÏR KOHN – Hungarian Neo-Hebraic poet and author; born in Vag-Bistritz, Hungary, 1820; died in Vienna Sept. 7, 1892. He lived the greater part of his life in Vienna, where he published most of his works. The first of these was his notes...
BITHIAH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered of the tribe of Judah married (I Chron. iv. 18). In the Midrash (Lev. R. § 1) she is called the foster-mother of Moses.J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: Daughter of Pharaoh;...
BLASER, ISAAC B. SOLOMON – Russian rabbi and educator; born in Wilna about 1840. Educated to be a rabbi, he is recognized as the foremost pupil of Israel Lipkin and the best exponent of his moral teachings and methods of study. Blaser became the rabbi of...
BLOCH [ISSACHAR] BAER B. SAMSON ḤASID – Austrian rabbi of the eighteenth century; a native of Hamburg, and son of the author of the Tosafot Ḥadashim on the Mishnah. Bloch was rabbi of Eiwanowitz, Moravia, when, in 1767, he was called to the rabbinate of Kojetein, in...
BLUM, DAVID – German Talmudist of the middle of the sixteenth century; rabbi at Sulzburg, near Freiburg in Baden [?]. He was classed among the best Talmudic authorities in Germany. Among his pupils Joseph B. Isaac ha-Levi Ashkenazi was proud...
BOAZ – Biblical Data: One of the relatives of Elimelech, husband of Naomi; a wealthy Judean, living at Bethlehem in Judah (Ruth ii. 1). He was one of the kinsmen of Ruth; as such he had the privilege of redeeming the family estate sold...
BOCARA, ABRAHAM B. MOSES – Rabbi of the community of Leghorn Jews at Tunis, where he died in 1879. He was the author of "Ben Abraham," a work treating of difficult problems in religious law, and published at Leghorn, 1882, by his relative, Jacob Bocara....