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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
BRESLAU, ARYEH LÖB BEN ḤAYYIM – German Talmudist and rabbi; born in 1741 at Breslau, Prussia; died April 22, 1809, at Rotterdam, Holland. He lived at Lissa, Posen, and later at Berlin, where he was an inmate of the bet ha-midrash of the philanthropist Daniel...
BRESLAU, JOSEPH B. DAVID – German Talmudist and rabbi; born (probably at Breslau) in 1691; died Jan. 22, 1752, at Bamberg. He was at first a rabbi at Grabfeld near Fulda, then rabbi of Bamberg, 1743-52, where his brother-in-law, Moses b. Abraham Broda,...
BRIBERY – The offer or receipt of anything of value in corrupt payment for an official act done or to be done.The moral basis for the Jewish law against bribery is clearly expressed in Deut. xvi. 19-20; see also Ex. xxiii. 8. Divine...
BRIELI JUDAH LEON BEN ELIEZER – Rabbi in Mantua; born about 1643; died in 1722.Brieli, besides being a high Talmudical authority, as is shown in the responsa of his contemporaries Ishmael Coen, Morpurgo, and others who asked his opinion on halakic questions,...
BRILL, AZRIEL – Hungarian rabbi and author; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century; assistant rabbi (dayyan) at Pest, Hungary. He wrote: "Hadrat Ḳodesh" (Beauty of Holiness), containing the Mishnah treatises, Rosh ha-Shanah, and...
BRODA, ABRAHAM BEN SAUL – Bohemian Talmudist; born about 1640 at Bunzlau; died April 11, 1717, at Frankfort-on-the-Main. Saul Broda sent his son to Cracow to pursue his Talmudic studies with Rabbi Isaac ben Ze'eb Ḥarif of that city, in order to withdraw...
BRODA, ABRAHAM B. SHALOM – Russian rabbinical author; born in Wilna about the beginning of the nineteenth century; died there after 1860. His father, R. Shalom b. Aaron, who was quite young at the time of his death (1805), was one of the leaders of the...
BRODA, BENJAMIN B. AARON – Lithuanian rabbi and Talmudist; died Sept. 1, 1818, at Grodno. He was the best-known Talmudist of the five sons of Aaron Broda, an eminent Talmudist and rabbi of the old Polish community of Kalvarien. Owing to his wealth and...
BRÜLL, NEHEMIAH – Rabbi and scholar of varied attainments; born March 16, 1843, at Neu-Raussnitz, Moravia; died Feb. 5, 1891, at Frankfort-on-the-Main. Brüll received his rabbinic-Talmudic education from his father, Jakob, who combined wide...
BUBER, SOLOMON – Galician scholar and editor of Hebrew works; born at Lemberg Feb. 2, 1827. His father, Isaiah Abraham Buber, was versed in Talmudic literature and Jewish philosophy, and was Solomon's teacher in the latter subject; but for his...
BUCHNER, WOLF B. DAVID HAKOHEN – Hebrew stylist; born at Brody in the latter half of the eighteenth century and lived into the nineteenth. In his boyhood Buchner enjoyed the hospitality which every Talmud student found in those days in the bet ha-midrash, and...
BUCZACZ, ABRAHAM DAVID B. ASHER ANSHEL – Galician Talmudist; born 1770 at Nadworna; died 1840 at Buczacz. Even as a boy he attracted, by his acuteness in Talmudic knowledge, the attention of the leading Talmudists to such a degree that Ẓebi Hirsch, the author of "Neṭa'...
BULAH, RAPHAEL MOSES BEN JOSEPH DE – Palestinian Talmudist and rabbi; died at Jerusalem March 23, 1773, where he had been rabbi, and had conducted a Talmudic school. He wrote the "Geṭ Mekushshar" on the divorce laws, Constantinople, 1767; "Ḥayye 'Olam" (Eternal...
BULAH, SOLOMON BEN RAPHAEL MOSES DE – Turkish Talmudist; born at Jerusalem, where his father, Raphael Moses ben Joseph de Bulah, was rabbi; died 1786 at Salonica. Solomon settled at Salonica. He was the author of "Leḥem Shelomoh" (The Bread of Solomon), a halakic...
BULAT (V03p425001.jpg), ABRAHAM IBN – Talmudic scholar; lived in Spain in the fifteenth century. He was the disciple of Isaac de Leon, and in a vigorous dispute of the latter with Isaac Gayyal concerning a halakic decision, Balat took the part of his master and...
BULAT (V03p425002.jpg), JUDAH BEN JOSEPH IBN – Spanish Talmudist and rabbi; born at the end of the fifteenth century at Estella, Navarre; died probably at Constantinople about 1550. He was the author of "Kelal Ḳaẓer mi-Kol ha-Rashum Beketab" (Short Abstract of All That Has...
BUNZLAU (BUMSLO), MEÏR BEN EPHRAIM FISHEL – Bohemian rabbi and Talmudist; born at Bunzlau (Jewish-German, "Bumslo"); died Nov. 23, 1770, at Prague, where he had been for forty years "rosh bet din" and director of a Talmudic academy. His works were never published, since...
BURGEL (BURGIL), ELIJAH ḤAI VITA – Rabbi of Tunis; son of Nathan Burgel. He is the author of "Migdanot Natan," a work in two parts. The first part, printed with a literary production by his father (Leghorn, 1778), contains a commentary on the tractate Baba Meẓi'a...
BURGEL, JOSEPH – Rabbi of Tunis; son of Elijah Ḥai Burgel; born in 1791; died at Tunis in 1857. He was the author of "Zar'a de-Yosef," on the Tosafot (Leghorn, 1849), and of "Wa-Yiḳen Yosef," various responsa (Leghorn, 1852).L. G. M. K....
BURGEL, NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM – Rabbi at Tunis about 1750; pupil of Isaac Lumbroso. Considered a rabbinical authority, people from far and near brought him cases difficult to decide. When he was an old man he went to Jerusalem, where he died soon after his...
BURNING BUSH – Biblical Data: The name commonly given to the tree from which the angel of Jehovah manifested himself to Moses in a flame of fire; the distinctive feature of the revelation being that the tree was not consumed (Ex. iii. 2-4).—In...
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
CABALA – Name and Origin (Hebrew form Ḳabbalah [ , from = "to receive"; literally, "the received or traditional lore"]): The specific term for the esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as...
CAIN – 1. Biblical Data: First-born of Adam and Eve, named "Cain" ("Ḳayin") because "gotten" (root, "ḳanah") "with the help of Yhwh." He became a tiller of the ground, and made an offering of its fruits which Yhwh did not accept,...
CALAMANI, JOSHUA ABRAHAM BEN SIMḤAH – Italian Talmudist; born at Venice in 1704. The surname "Calamani" is, according to Steinschneider, derived from the German "Kalman" or "Kalonymus," borne by an ancestor of Joshua. Calamani was a precocious child, the only work...