JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
CATARIVAS, SHEMARIAH – Talmudic writer of the eighteenth century. He was originally from Tiberias, and went to Tunis in 1750 as alms-collector, settling there after a sojourn in Algiers. He gained a reputation for scholarship and piety. Catarivas was...
CAVALLERO, CAVAGLIERO – Name of a family, with branches in Provence, Africa, Turkey, and Italy.1. Abraham ben Judah Cavallero: Lived at Fez between 1688 and 1700.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Hebräische Bibl. xvi. 62.2. Isaac Cavallero: Talmudic...
CAVALLERO, CAVAGLIERO – Name of a family, with branches in Provence, Africa, Turkey, and Italy.1. Abraham ben Judah Cavallero: Lived at Fez between 1688 and 1700.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Hebräische Bibl. xvi. 62.2. Isaac Cavallero: Talmudic...
CHAJES – Talmudist, literary historian, and rabbi; born at Brody Nov. 20, 1805; died at Lemberg Oct. 12, 1855. His father, a scion of the famous Ḥayot family of scholars, was a highly educated banker who lived for fifteen years at...
CHASEISCH, MOSES – German Talmudist; died at Halberstadt in 1793. Chaseisch enjoyed an established reputation among his contemporaries as a Talmudist, and was loved and honored by them on account of his modesty. Although his Talmudic attainments...
CHERETHITES – Biblical Data: Probably the name of a part of the Philistines; usually, however, designating the whole nation, as in Zeph. ii. 5, where "the nation of the Cherethites" evidently means the Philistines in general. Similarly, Ezek....
CHERUB – Biblical Data: The name of a winged being mentioned frequently in the Bible. The prophet Ezekiel describes the cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each having four faces—of a lion, an ox, an eagle, and a man—the stature...
CHORIN (CHORINER), AARON – Hungarian rabbi; born at Weisskirchen, Moravia, Aug. 3, 1766; died at Arad, Hungary, Aug 24, 1844. At the age of fourteen he studied in the yeshibah of Rabbi Jeremias in Mattersdorf, Hungary, and two years later at Prague in the...
CHRONOGRAM – A sentence or verse certain letters of which express a date, while the sentence itself alludes to or is descriptive of the event to which the date belongs. The words "chronograph," "chronicon," "chronostichon," "eteostichon,"...
CHRYSOSTOMUS, JOANNES – Patriarch of Constantinople, one of the most celebrated of the Church Fathers, and the most eminent orator of the early Christian period; born in 347 at Antioch; died Sept. 14, 407, near Comana, in Pontus. Chrysostom originally...
CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANIMALS – Distinction Between "Clean" and "Unclean." —Animals ceremonially pure and fit for food, and such as are not. Biblical Data: The distinction between clean and unclean animals appears first in Gen. vii. 2-3, 8, where it is said...
CLEMENTINA – A series of kindred works of a Judæo-Christian sect of the second century, of which only the Homilies, the Recognitions, and the Epitomes have been preserved. The Homilies, published first in 1853, present in the form of...
CLOUD, PILLAR OF – Biblical Data: When Israel was marching through the wilderness, Yhwh, wrapped in a pillar of cloud, preceded the people in order to show them the right way. During the night the cloud turned into a pillar of fire (Ex. xiii. 21;...
COBLENZ, GERSON BEN ISAAC MOSES – French rabbi and author; born about 1717; died at Metz in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was a pupil of R. Jacob, author of "Shebut Ya'aḳob," and officiated as dayyan at Metz. Of his works the following are known:...
COCK – The male of the domestic fowl. The original habitat of the domestic fowl is generally supposed to be India, whence it was introduced at an early time into Babylonia and Greece. It is difficult to say when it was brought to...
COHEN, URI (PHOEBUS, FEIVUS) BEN ELIEZER LIEBERMANN – French Talmudist; died May, 1806, at an advanced age in his native city, Metz. His father was a member of the rabbinical college in that city. Phoebus also became a rabbi, and conducted a Talmudic academy there. At first he was...
COHEN-LIPSCHÜTZ, EPHRAIM – Italian rabbi and author of the second half of the seventeenth century. He was one of the rabbis at Modena, and was known as a keen Talmudical scholar. His responsa on Talmudical subjects are found in "Paḥad Yiẓaḳ," by Isaac...
COHEN-YIẒAḲI, ABRAHAM – Tunisian rabbi and writer; born at Tunis; died there in 1864. He is the author of the following Hebrew works, printed at Leghorn by a pious and generous Judæo-Tunisian family, the Shamamas: "Mishmerot Kehunnah," containing...
COLON, JOSEPH B. SOLOMON – The foremost Talmudist of Italy in the second half of the fifteenth century; born probably at Chambéry, Savoy, about 1420; died at Padua 1480. Colon (whose name is probably identical with the French "colombe," dove) belonged to...
COLORNI, MALACHI – Italian author; lived at Modena in the eighteenth century. He wrote a guide to letter-writing, "Megillat Sefer," still extant in manuscript, containing thirty-one letters (Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No. 1379). He also copied a...
COMMERCIAL LAW – According to Jewish law persons legally capable of entering into any form of contract are legally capable of making commercial contracts also; but it must not be forgotten that girls reach majority at twelve and boys at...
COMMUNITY, ORGANIZATION OF – Ancient and Medieval: At the beginning of the common era there were Jewish communities at Alexandria, Rome, Salamis, Corinth, Athens, Delos, etc.; at Antioch (in Pisidia), Iconium, Smyrna, Ephesus, and other well-known cities on...
CONFLICT OF OPINION – Rarely did an opinion expressed by one of the rabbis of the Talmud pass unchallenged. In questions involving logical reasoning, or the interpretation of some Biblical passage, or an opinion of an earlier authority, there were...
CONTEMPT OF COURT – Disrespectful demeanor before, or disobedience of, a public authority. Courts of justice must be treated with respect, and their orders must be obeyed; therefore they have in all countries the power to punish acts of disrespect,...
CORCOS – A family whose history can be traced back to the end of the thirteenth century, and members of which are still living in Gibraltar and Morocco. The name first appears in Spain; but it was only in the two centuries following the...