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Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D.

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ESCAPA – Rabbi of Smyrna; flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century; probably born at Uskup, European Turkey, after which place he is named. At first rabbi and chief of the yeshibah at Salonica, he later filled the same...
ESTRUMBA – Oriental Jewish family which has produced several rabbinical authors; takes its name from "Strumnitza" in Macedonia.Daniel Estrumsa: Rabbi and Talmudist; died at Salonica (?) in 1654. A pupil of Rabbi Mordecai Ḳala'i, he became...
EZEKIEL – His Influence. —Biblical Data: Concerning the life of Ezekiel there are but a few scattered references contained in the book bearing his name. He was the son of Buzi, a priest of Jerusalem (Ezek. i. 3), and consequently a member...
EZEKIEL'S TOMB – The traditional burial-place of the prophet Ezekiel, around which many sagas and legends have gathered, is shown at Kefil near Birs Nimrud; for centuries it has been a favorite place of pilgrimage for Mohammedans as well as for...
EZOBI, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH – Rabbi at Carpentras, Leghorn, and Florence; born at Sofia, Bulgaria, in the sixteenth century; died in Italy about 1650. While officiating as rabbi of Carpentras (1620-35) he instructed Jean Plantavit de la Pause, Bishop of...
FULD, AARON B. MOSES – German Talmudist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Dec. 2, 1790; died there Dec. 2, 1847. Being both a man of means and very retiring, he refused to accept the office of rabbi, and referred to the local rabbi any halakic questions...
GERSHON B. JACOB HA-GOZER – German Talmudist; flourished in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was a grand-nephew, and probably pupil, of Ephraim b. Jacob of Bonn. Like his father, Jacob b. Gershon ha-Gozer, he was a mohel, continuing the work, begun...
ḤAKAM – Functions. A wise or skilful man. The word is generally used to designate a cultured and learned person: "He who says a wise thing is called a wise man ["ḥakam"], even if he be not a Jew" (Meg.16a). Hence in Talmudic-Midrashic...
HANAMEEL – Biblical Data: Son of Shallum and cousin of Jeremiah. The latter purchased a field from him for seventeen shekels of silver in token of his belief that the Israelites would return to their land (Jer. xxxii. 7-12).E. G. H. M....
ḤEFEẒ B. YAẒLIAḤ – Halakist; lived toward the end of the tenth century. Rapoport assumes him to have beena Palestinian, but it is more probable that he lived in Kairwan. He was the author of a work, now lost, in which, as its name "Sefer...
HIRAM, HURAM – 1.—Biblical Data: King of Tyre in the time of David and Solomon. After David had conquered Jerusalem, Hiram sent him cedar-wood and carpenters and masons so that he might build a house (II Sam. v. 11; I Chron. xiv. 1). Hiram was...
HULDAH – Biblical Data: Prophetess; wife of Shallum, the keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. She dwelt in the second quarter of Jerusalem. It seems that Huldah enjoyed great consideration as a prophetess, for when Hilkiah...
HUR – 1. Biblical Data: Man of Judah, the grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxxi. 2, xxxv. 30, xxxviii. 22). According to the fuller genealogy in I Chron. ii. 18-20, he was the first-born son of...
ISAAC B. ABBA MARI – French codifier; born in Provence about 1122; died after 1193 (in Marseilles ?). Isaac's father, a great rabbinical authority, who wrote commentaries on the Talmud ("'Iṭṭur," i. 17, ed. Warsaw, section "Kinyan"), and responsa...
ISAAC BEN JOSEPH OF CORBEIL – French ritualist; flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century. He was the son-in-law of R. Jehiel ben Joseph of Paris, whose school he attended, and the pupil of the "Great Men of Evreux," notably of Samuel, whom he...
ISSERLEIN (ISSERLIN), ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH ASHKENAZI – The foremost Talmudic authority of Germany in the first half of the fifteenth century; born in the last decade of the fourteenth century, probably at Ratisbon; died at Neustadt, near Vienna, 1460. Isserlein belonged to an old...
JACOB OF CORBEIL – French tosafist of the twelfth century. He was the brother of Judah of Corbeil, author of tosafot to various treatises of the Talmud. He is sometimes confounded with Jacob ha-Levi, "the Pious," of Marvège or Marvéjols (Lozère,...
JACOB B. GERSHOM HA-GOZER – German Talmudist of the twelfth century. He was a nephew of Ephraim b. Jacob of Bonn, with whom he carried on a scientific correspondence; he had also personal relations with Eliezer b. Joel ha-Levi. As far as is known, Jacob...
JACOB B. YAḲAR – German Talmudist; flourished in the first half of the eleventh century. He was a pupil of Gershom b. Judah in Mayence, and is especially known as the teacher of Rashi, who characterizes him as "mori ha-zaḳen."Jacob was one of...
JEBUSITES – Biblical Data: One of the nations that occupied Palestine at the time of the invasion of the Israelites. In the list of the sons of Canaan, the Jebusite occupies the third place, between Heth and the Amorite (Gen. x. 15, 16; I...
JEHOIACHIN – Biblical Data: King of Judah; son and successor of Jehoiakim (II Kings xxiv. 6); reigned a little over three months. He was scarcely on the throne when Jerusalem was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon. Unable to resist,...
JEHOIAKIM – Biblical Data: King of Judah (608-597 B.C.); eldest son of Josiah, and brother and successor of Jehoahaz (Shallum), whom Pharaohnecho had deposed. When placed on the throne, his name, originally "Eliakim," was changed to...
JEREMIAH – Biblical Data: Son of Hilkiah; prophet in the days of Josiah and his sons.§ I. Life: In the case of no other Israelitish prophet is information so full as in that of Jeremiah. The historical portions of the Book of Jeremiah give...
JOEL B. ISAAC HA-LEVI – German tosafist of the twelfth century; born probably at Bonn; died at Cologne about 1200. Joel studied in his youth at Ratisbon under Ephraim b. Isaac, Isaac b. Mordecai, and Moses b. Joel, with whom he later kept up a learned...
JUDAH BEN BARZILLAI – Spanish Talmudist of the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century. Almost nothing is known of his life. He came of a very distinguished family, on account of which he was not seldom called "ha-Nasi" (the...