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Moses Beer,

Berlin, Germany.

Contributions:
AARON (BEN ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL) IBN ḤAYYIM – Moroccan Biblical and Talmudic commentator; flourished at the beginning of the seventeenth century at Fez; died at Jerusalem in 1632. He was a member of the bet din, or court of justice, of Fez, and removed to Venice about 1608,...
AARON BEN ḤAYYIM – An exegete who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century at Grodno, Russia. He wrote "Moreh Derek" (He Who Shows the Way), tracing the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, their wanderings in the desert, and the...
ABBAYE OF CONSTANTINOPLE – Talmudic scholar of the sixteenth century. He carried on a learned correspondence with Samuel di Medina ( ), rabbi of Salonica, who refers to him as the "greatest of our teachers." He wrote also a preface to Moses Nagara's...
ABERLE (RABEL), ABRAHAM – Moravian Hebraist; lived at Austerlitz in the third decade of the nineteenth century. All his literary productions—poems, metrical translations, exegetical notes, and riddles—were published in vols. ix. and x. of "Bikkure...
ABRABALIA – Spanish statesmen who flourished in Aragon in the latterhalf of the thirteenth century. Joseph was minister of finance to King Pedro III. (1276-85). Solomon ben Adret refers to Joseph and Moses as the "two great princes." The...
ABRAHAM ARYEH LOEB B. JUDAH HA-LEVI – A Talmudic author and rabbi, who lived at Stryzhow (Galicia, Austria) at the close of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth. His works, bearing the general title "Derishat Ari" (A Lion's Comment), contain:...
ABRAHAM BEN BARUCH – Writer on ritual; brother of Meir of Rothenburg; lived in southern Germany about the end of the thirteenth century. He wrote "Sefer Sinai" (The Book of Sinai), a collection of legal and ritualistic decisions, compiled from...
ABRAHAM (VITA) DE COLOGNA – An Italian rabbi, orator, and political leader; born at Mantua, 1755; died at Triest, 1832. While holding the post of rabbi of his native city he was elected a member of the Parliament of the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy, and in...
ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC ḤAYYOT – Commentator; lived in the seventeenth century. He is the author of "Holek Tamim" (He Who Walks Perfect), explaining the laws of the Pentateuch after the fourfold method of interpretation known as , that is, perush ("literal...
ABRAHAM SHOFEṬ (BEN SAMUEL) – A Karaite leader; lived in Poland at the end of the seventeenth century. He was a favorite of King John Sobieski (1674-96), and largely instrumental in the foundation of Karaite colonies in the neighborhood of Lemberg, Galicia....
ABRAHAMSON (ABRAMSON), MEYER – A German physician and writer on medicine; born at Hamburg, 1764; died there October 21, 1817. He graduated from the University of Göttingen in 1783 and began practise in his native city, where his father had also been a medical...
ABTERODE (APTROD), DAVID – Rabbinical writer; great-grandfather of David Sinzheim; probably born at Abterode near Frankfort-on-the-Main, in which town he lived toward the end of the seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote...
ABUN BEN SAUL – An elegist who was probably a pupil of Isaac Alfasi and, most likely, is the one whose death Moses ibn Ezra deplores in a poem. Two of his elegies are found in the Maḥzor of Avignon.Bibliography: Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 343;...
ACELDAMA – An ancient ossuary on the southern extremity of Jerusalem, near the ravine of Hinnom. The field once contained rich clay deposits which were worked by potters. A red clay is still dug in its neighborhood. The "potter's house"...
ACHOR – A valley near Jericho. From Josh. xv. 7 it would appear that it was situated upon the northern boundary of Judah. Its exact position has not, however, been ascertained. Eusebius ("Onomasticon," ed. Lagarde, p. 105) and Jerome...
ADARBI, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL – A casuist and preacher of the Shalom Congregation of Salonica; lived in the sixteenth century. He was the pupil of Joseph Taitazak and the schoolmate of Samuel di Medina ( ). Adarbi wrote: (1) "Dibre Ribot" (Polemics),...
ADERSBACH, G. A. – German poet; died in 1823. He belonged to the generation that, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, took anactive part in the struggle for Jewish emancipation. In his contributions to the "Sulamith" (vol. v.) he...
ADHAN, SOLOMON BEN MASUD – Translator and author, who lived in the first half of the eighteenth century. He went from Tafilet, Morocco, to Amsterdam so as to obtain the necessary means for the ransom of his family and of his synagogue from the hands of...
ADLER, GEORGE – German economist and author; born at Posen, May 28, 1863. His thesis for the doctor's degree (1883) was on Rodbertus-Jagetzow, the well-known Prussian state socialist. He is a remarkably prolific writer on economic and...
ADLER, GUIDO – Austrian writer on music; born at Eibenschütz, Moravia, Nov. 1, 1855. His father, Joachim, a physician, died in 1857, whereupon his mother removed to Iglau. He was educated in Vienna, where he studied music at the conservatory...
ADLER, JACOB – Judæo-German actor; born at Odessa, Russia, January 1, 1855. Influenced by a Jewish troupe which came from Rumania to Odessa in 1875, he resolved to devote himself to a theatrical career. He made his first appearance in 1878 at...
ADLER, VICTOR – Austrian physician, journalist, and leader of the Austrian labor movement; born at Prague, June 24, 1852. Having been graduated as M. D., he settled in Vienna, where his professional practise brought him in contact with the...
ADOLESCENTOLI, DEGLI – One of the four or five noble families which, according to legend, were transported by Titus (70-81) from Jerusalem to Rome. The history of this family, however, can only be traced to the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth...
ADOLPHUS, SIR JOHN – English lawyer, historical and political writer; born at London in 1768; died there July 16, 1845. His grandfather, a Jew of German extraction, was physician in ordinary to Frederick the Great of Prussia, and wrote a French...
ADULA OF TUNIS – A Jew who, to avoid being baptized, committed suicide in the house of the catechumen in Rome, on May 2, 1666, at the moment he was about to undergo the rite.Bibliography: Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. d. Juden in Rom, ii. 219;...