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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israélite Universelle School, Gallipoli, Turkey.

Contributions:
ASAHEL, ḤAYYIM – Rabbi and author who lived in Salonica during the first half of the eighteenth century. He was the son of Benjamin Asahel, the chief rabbi of that city. Ḥayyim Asahel was the author of a Hebrew work entitled "Sam Ḥayyai" (Spice...
ASHKENAZI – Government official in the employ of the Ottoman empire; born 1840. He received his early education at the Institution Camondo, and, after filling several subordinate positions, was appointed by Sultan Aziz, in 1869, a member of...
ASSABAN – Rabbi and author; born at Morocco in 1700 and died at Aleppo about 1760. He was chief rabbi of Leghorn, and emigrated to Jerusalem about 1729, where he dwelt for thirty years. He was the author of a "Widdui" (confession of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
BAGDAD – Under the Abbassid Califs. Capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name, which is situated in lower Mesopotamia on both sides of the Tigris. The vilayet formerly extended from Diabekr to Yemen, with the Persian frontier as...
BAZARJIK – A small town of eastern Rumelia, twenty-four miles from Philippopolis, containing a Jewish community of 1,700 in a total population of 17,000. It is said to date from the year 1492, or, according to Bianconi, from the expulsion...
BEHAR, JACOB JOSEPH HA-ROFE – Chief rabbi of Bagdad about 1843, and author of two Hebrew works; viz., "Shir Ḥadash," a commentary upon the Song of Solomon, printed at Calcutta, 1843, by Eleazar Mari Aaron Saadia Araki, and "Na'awah Tehillah," a commentary...
BEHAR, MOSES SHABBETHAI – Rabbi and author; lived in Salonica at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Author of a Hebrew book, "Torat Mosheh" (Salonica, 1802), a collection of responsa.S. M. Fr.
BELGRADE – Capital of the kingdom of Servia, situated at the confluence of the Save and the Danube. After Sultan Sulaiman the Magnificent had captured the city from the Hungarians in 1522, the Turks remained in possession until 1867, when...
BEN-DAVID, ABRAHAM – Chief rabbi of Serres, European Turkey, for 16 years (1825-41); born 1788, died 1841; author of a volume of responsa, "Tiferet Adam" (Man's Beauty), Salonica, 1861.S. M. Fr.
BEN-EZRA, SOLOMON – Chief rabbi of the Jewish community of Smyrna, Asia Minor, in the second half of the eighteenth century, having succeeded his father, Abraham Ben-Ezra; died in 1782. He was the author of a series of Hebrew sermons, "Yad...
BENGAZI – City of Tripoli, Africa, on the east coast of the Gulf of Sidra. Little is known of the first settlement of the Jews there; according to local traditions, they came originally from Tripoli.The chief rabbis of the community in...
BOSNIA – Province of the Balkan peninsula, on the frontier of Austria and of Montenegro. Formerly under Turkish rule, it came under the protection of Austria by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878.According to some historians, the first Jews...
BOURGAS – City of eastern Rumelia (southern Bulgaria) and port on the Black Sea; six hours distant from Constantinople. The Jews of Bourgas came originally from Yambol and Carnabat, the first family settling in 1879. There are a...
BRUSA – City of Anatolia, 54 miles from Constantinople and 21 miles from the port of Moudania. According to some chroniclers, the Jews of Brusa were the first to enter into relations with the Ottoman Turks and to come under their...
BUENA ESPÉRANZA, LA – Title of a Jewish weekly, published in Judæo-Spanish and in rabbinic characters at Smyrna since 1874. It first appeared under the name "La Esperanza." Aaron de Joseph Ḥazan has been its editor from the beginning.G. M....
BULGARIA – Early Jewish settlements. Principality of southeastern Europe, under the suzerainty of Turkey. According to Josephus ("Ant." xxii.) and Belloguet ("Les Cimérieux," p. 24) the Jews knew of Mœsia (old name for the Balkan...
CAMONDO – Well-known family of Jewish financiers and philanthropists of Spanish-Portuguese origin. Several centuries ago it established itself at Venice, where some of its members became famous by their scholarship and by the services...
CARASSO, DAVID SAMUEL – Jewish traveler; born at Salonica, Turkey. On the occasion of a business trip to Yemen, Arabia, in 1874, he studied the situation of the Jews of that region, and published an account of his travels in a volume written in...
CARMI – Title of a small Hebrew review, published for some months in 1882 at Adrianople, under the editorship of Baruch Mitrani.Bibliography: Franco, Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman.G. M. Fr. Mount Carmel from the Sea.(From...
CARMONA – A family of Jewish financiers prominent in Turkey at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is of Spanish origin, and probably came from the city of the same name in Andalusia. The earliest known member was Behor Carmona,...
CARNABAT – Town of eastern Rumelia or southern Bulgaria. According to tradition, Jews first established themselves at Carnabat about 1580; but the oldest tombstones decipherable bear date of 1686. Eliezer of Calo was chief rabbi of...
CASABLANCA – Port of Morocco, Africa, on the Atlantic ocean. The Jewish community, numbering 6,000, in a total population of 20,000 inhabitants, is of recent date. The majority of its members are engaged in commerce in grain, spices, etc.;...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...