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M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israélite Universelle School, Gallipoli, Turkey.

Contributions:
CAZÈS, DAVID – Moroccan educator and writer; born at Tetuan in 1851. Sent to Paris in his early youth, he was educated by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, and at the age of eighteen was commissioned to establish and direct several primary...
CHIOS – Island in the Ægean Sea; Turkish possession, 344 miles west of Smyrna. It is not known with any certainty when the Jews first established themselves at Chios. According to the local legends reported by the traveler Joseph...
COHEN, ABRAHAM – Chief rabbi of Djerba, an island near Tunis; died in 1870. He was the author of a Hebrew poem, "Shir Ḥadash," published at Leghorn by Israel Costa and dealing with the 613 precepts of the Law; and of a Hebrew commentary on the...
COHEN, DAVID – Rabbi (1902) of the island of Djerba, near Tunis. He is the author of the following Hebrew works: "Shire David" (Songs of David),a collection of poems; a treatise on grammar, with notes on the principles underlying the...
COHEN, ELIAS – Turkish physician; born in 1844. He belongs to a family many members of which have been distinguished in medicine. His early studies were completed at the Jewish communal school founded at Constantinople by the Camondo family....
COHEN, HALIFA – Tunisian rabbi residing (1902) at Djerba. He is the author of two Hebrew works: "Sifte Renanot" (Joyful Lips), a commentary on the Psalms, Jerusalem, 1890; and "Ḳunteris ha-Semikut" (notes on divers subjects). BIBLIOGRAPHY:...
COHEN, ḤAYYIM – Tunisian rabbi; lived in the second half of the nineteenth century, on the island of Djerba, near Tunis. He is the author of "Na'awah Ḳodesh" (Becoming Is Holiness), a commentary on the Song of Songs, Leghorn, 1872; "Mille...
COHEN, MENAHEM – Chief rabbi of Serres, European Turkey, in 1862; was in office for twenty years; died a nonagenarian in Jerusalem. He was summoned to Constantinople by Fu'ad Pasha, grand vizier of the sultan 'Aziz, as a member of the jury...
COHEN, MOSES – Bulgarian journalist; born at Shumla, Bulgaria, in 1864. He published in French "Petite Histoire des Israélites," Philippopolis, 1897, a text-book containing a résumé, chapter for chapter, of Theodore Reinach's "Histoire des...
COHEN-TANUGI, JUDAH B. ABRAHAM – Rabbi and writer; died at Tunis about 1835, at an advanced age. He is the author of two Hebrew works, both of which contain notes on the Talmud: "Ereẓ Yehudah" (Land of Judah), Leghorn, 1797; and "Admat Yehudah (Soil of Judah),"...
COHEN-YIẒAḲI, ABRAHAM – Tunisian rabbi and writer; born at Tunis; died there in 1864. He is the author of the following Hebrew works, printed at Leghorn by a pious and generous Judæo-Tunisian family, the Shamamas: "Mishmerot Kehunnah," containing...
CONSTANTINIS, ABRAHAM – Greek manufacturer, and president ("proëdros") of the Jewish community of Athens, Greece. He was born at Zante in 1865. After receiving an elementary education in his native city, he studied at Paris, where he took the degree of...
COREO DE VIENA – Judæo-Spanish journal printed in rabbinic characters, published at Vienna since 1870. It was for some years under the editorship of Adolfo de Zemlinski.G. M. Fr.
CORIAT – Jewish family of Morocco. In 1812 there appeared at Pisa a Hebrew work, under the title "Zekut Abot," in which three members of this family collaborated—Judah, his son Abraham, and his grandson Judah. This book contains an...
COSTUME – In Biblical Times: The general Hebrew designation for "costume" is "beged," applied indifferently to the garments of rich and poor, male and female. Other general designations are "keli," "lebush," "malbush," "tilboshet," and...
COVO – Name of a Jewish family of Salonica, Turkey, a branch of which lives at Widdin, Bulgaria. As the name indicates, the family was originally of Covo, near Milan, Italy. There have been several rabbis of this name.D.Asher Covo, or...
COVO – Name of a Jewish family of Salonica, Turkey, a branch of which lives at Widdin, Bulgaria. As the name indicates, the family was originally of Covo, near Milan, Italy. There have been several rabbis of this name.D.Asher Covo, or...
CRESPIN, ELIAS – Rumanian rabbi, teacher, and journalist; born about 1850 at Eskee Sara, eastern Rumelia; he fled to Rumania after the Turco-Russian war of 1878. He was the first in the East to found a Judæo-Spanish journal in Latin characters,...
CRESPIN, SAMUEL – Turkish rabbinical author; lived at Smyrna in the first half of the nineteenth century; son of Joshua Abraham Crespin, grand rabbi of Smyrna. He was the author of "Mesheḳ Beti" (Steward of My House; Gen. xv. 2), novellæ to the...
DAMASCUS – An ancient city of Asia Minor, situated at the foot of the Anti-Lebanon, 180 miles south by west of Aleppo; now the capital of the vilayet of Syria. In the Old Testament it is called (Dammeseḳ), or (Darmeseḳ, I Chron. xviii. 5...
DAMASCUS AFFAIR – Accusation of ritual murder brought against the Jews of Damascus in 1840. At that time Damascus, together with Syria, belonged to Mohammed Ali, pasha of Egypt, who had revolted against the authority of his suzerain, the sultan...
DANON, ABRAHAM – Turkish writer; born at Adrianople, European Turkey, in 1857; attended the Talmud Torah in that city, pursuing his Talmudic studies at a yeshibah. After having presided over a small seminary at Adrianople, he was appointed...
DANON, MEÏR BENJAMIN MENAHEM – Rabbinical writer, and chief rabbi of Sarajevo in Bosnia; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Be'er ba-Sadeh" (A Well in the Field), a supercommentary on Rashi's commentary to the Pentateuch, and on its...
DANON, YOM-ṬOB – Author and rabbi of Smyrna in the first half of the nineteenth century. He went to Jerusalem in 1821, where he succeeded Joseph Ḥazan as chief rabbi. He wrote "Kebod Yom-Ṭob," a commentary on Maimonides' "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah"...
DARDANELLES – Name of the two cities situated opposite each other on the shores of the strait at the entrance to the Sea of Marmora. The European city is inhabited byMohammedans exclusively; the Asiatic city contains Mohammedans, Greeks,...