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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israélite Universelle School, Gallipoli, Turkey.

Contributions:
GUMURJINA – Town in European Turkey, west of Adrianople. It has a population of 26,000, including 1,200 Jews. The Jewish community possesses separate schools for boys and girls with a roll of 200 children, a synagogue, and five charitable...
HAIFA – Pilgrimages. Syrian seaport, at the foot of Mount Carmel, and ten kilometers from Acre. Near Haifa are two grottos, one associated with the name of the prophet Elijah, the second with that of Elisha. In Biblical times this...
HA-ẒEBI – Hebrew weekly, published at Jerusalem, beginning in 1876, by Eliezer Benjudah. At the end of 1899 he began to publish a supplement, also in Hebrew, dealing with agriculture, under the title "Ha-'Iḳḳar." The supplement, however,...
ḤAZZAN, HAZAN – An Oriental rabbinical family, probably of Spanish origin, members of which are found in Spain, and in Smyrna, Alexandria, and other cities of the East; their pedigree, however, can not be traced further back than the eighteenth...
HEBRON – 1. A city of Asher, properly "Ebron"; called also Abdon.2. Town in Palestine, about 17 miles southwest of Jerusalem; it has a population of 14,000, including 1,100 Jews—690 Sephardim and 410 Ashkenazim. In 1890 there was a...
ISRAEL – An Eastern family of rabbis and authors whose members dwelt in Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Rhodes, where they held important positions. It included:Abraham Israel: Rabbinical author; lived at Alexandria in the eighteenth century...
JACQUES PASHA (Jacques Nissim Pasha) – Turkish army surgeon; born in 1850 at Salonica; died there Aug. 25, 1903. The son of a physician, he was sent at an early age to the school of medicine at Constantinople, from which he was graduated in 1874. In the following...
JAFFA – City of Palestine and Mediterranean port, 35 miles northwest of Jerusalem. In ancient times it was Palestine's only point of communication with the Mediterranean. The cedars of Lebanon, destined for use in the construction of...
JANINA – City in Albania, European Turkey, on the lake of Janina.The community, which was flourishing in the middle of the nineteenth century, is now dwindling. It includes about 1,000 families in an entire population of 30,000...
JERIDIE-TERJUME – Title of a Jewish periodical, written in Judæo-Spanish, and printed in rabbinic characters, which was published at Constantinople in 1876 under the editorship of Nissim Niego.G. M. Fr.
JERUSALEM – Ancient: Cross-Sectional View of Jerusalem (West to East) as Seen from the South.(After Heyck, "Die Kreuzzüge.")Capital at first of all Israel, later of the kingdom of Judah; chief city of Palestine; situated in 31° 46′ 45″ N....
JUMA-I-BALA – Turkish city on the Bulgarian frontier, four hours from Dubnitza. The community here dates from the middle of the eighteenth century, and must have been important and wealthy; for when the famous chief Pazvan-Oglu and his band...
KAHANA, RAB – Grand rabbi of Constantinople (1854-1860); born 1785; died 1860 (Franco, "Hist. des Isr. de l'Empire Ottoman," 1897).S. M. Fr.
KIAMIL PASHA – Turkish official; born at Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1832. Educated on that island and in Egypt, he at the age of seventeen entered the service of the Egyptian government, afterward passing into that of Turkey, under which he has...
KIHAYA – Title of the political representatives of the rayas, i.e., the non-Mohammedan Turkish subjects, at the Porte. The Jewish representative is proposed by the chief rabbi of the central consistory of the Jews of Constantinople, his...
ḲIMḤI, SOLOMON – Turkish rabbinical author; lived at Constantinople in the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1862 he published "Meleket Shelomoh," in which he tried to prove that the Karaites are animals, that it is forbidden to teach them...
KIRK-KILISSEH – City in Thrace, European Turkey, 102 miles north of Constantinople. The name signifies in Turkish "forty churches."Kirk-Kilisseh is an ancient Greek city, and it contained no Jews when Sultan Murad II. conquered it in 1436....
KRESPIN, MORDECAI – Turkish rabbi and writer; lived on the island of Rhodes in the first half of the eighteenth century; son-in-law of R. Moses Israel, author of "Masse' ot Mosheh." Krespin was the author of the following two works: "Ma'amar...
KUSTENDIL – Bulgarian city in the north of Macedonia, near the Servian city of Nish. Jews must have settled at Kustendil before the beginning of the eighteenth century; a tombstone in the local cemetery bears the date 5509 (= 1749), and...
LEVY, JUDAH – Tunisian rabbinical author; lived at Tunis and died there in the middle of the nineteenth century; son of Nathan Levy. He was originally from Gibraltar. He published under his own name only one Hebrew work, "Maḥane Lewiyyah."...
LÉVY-BACRAT, ABRAHAM – Rabbinical author of the beginning of the sixteenth century. Expelled from Spain in 1492, he settled at Tunis, where in 1507 he wrote "Sefer ha-Zikkaron," a supercommentary on Rashi. The manuscript remained unprinted till 1845,...
LOMBROSO (LUMBROSO) – Sephardic family, members of which lived in Tunis, Marseilles, and Italy. The two forms of the family name are doubtless due to different readings of the Hebrew .Abram Lumbroso, Baron: Tunisian physician and scientist; born in...
MALKI, RAPHAEL MORDECAI – Rabbinical scholar and physician of Palestine; lived at Safed about 1627. He was versed in astronomy and philosophy, and was the author of a commentary on the Pentateuch entitled "Perush 'al ha-Torah."Bibliography: Hazan,...
MANASSEH, JACOB – Turkish rabbinical writer and chief rabbi of Salonica, where he died in 1832. Among his works may be mentioned: "Ohel Ya'aḳob," an alphabetical collection of the laws of religion (Salonica, 1832); "Be'er ha-Mayim," responsa (ib....
MANṢUR MARZUḲ – Egyptian rabbi and author; settled at Salonica toward the close of the eighteenth century. He was the author of several works: "Ẓur Todah" (Salonica, 1783), a commentary on the Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah; "Ben Pedahẓur" (ib. 1786), sermons;...