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M. Franco,

Principal, Alliance Israélite Universelle School, Gallipoli, Turkey.

Contributions:
PHILIPPOPOLIS – Historical Data. Capital of eastern Rumelia, or southern Bulgaria. Historical data of the early years of its Jewish community are very meager. The anonymous author of an appendix to the Judæo-Spanish "Yosippon" (Constantinople,...
PICHON (PITCHON), JOSEPH – Rabbinical author; lived in Turkey at the end of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Minhage ha-Bediḳah be-'Ir Saloniḳi," a work relating to the method which was followed of making meat kasher in the slaughter-house...
PILGRIMAGE – Pilgrimage to First Temple. A journey which is made to a shrine or sacred place in performance of a vow or for the sake of obtaining some form of divine blessing. Every male Israelite was required to visit the Temple three times...
PONTREMOLI, BENJAMIN – Turkish rabbinical writer; lived at Smyrna at the end of the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Shebeṭ Binyamin" (Salonica, 1824), on drawing up commercial papers. He had two sons, Ḥayyim Isaiah and...
PONTREMOLI, ḤIYYA – Turkish rabbinical author; died at Smyrna in 1832; son of Benjamin Pontremoli. Ḥiyya Pontremoli wrote, among other works, the "Ẓappiḥit bi-Debash," a collection of responsa on Oraḥ Ḥayyim.Bibliography: Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot...
PURIMS, SPECIAL – Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate deliverance from some danger which threatened either a whole community or an individual family. At...
PURIMS, SPECIAL – Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate deliverance from some danger which threatened either a whole community or an individual family. At...
PURIMS, SPECIAL – Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate deliverance from some danger which threatened either a whole community or an individual family. At...
PURIMS, SPECIAL – Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate deliverance from some danger which threatened either a whole community or an individual family. At...
PURIMS, SPECIAL – Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate deliverance from some danger which threatened either a whole community or an individual family. At...
PURIMS, SPECIAL – Certain fast- and feast-days specially observed in some Jewish communities, in imitation of the national Purim, to commemorate deliverance from some danger which threatened either a whole community or an individual family. At...
RAḤAMIM, NISSIM – Turkish rabbinical writer; lived at Smyrna; died there 1828. He was the author of a Hebrew work entitled "Har ha-Mor" (Salonica, 1835), consisting of sermons and dissertations on Maimonides (Hazan, "Ha-Ma'alot li-Shelomoh," p....
RODOSTO – Port of Turkey in Europe on the Sea of Marmora, 78 miles west of Constantinople. The city had a Jewish community as early as the twelfth century; for in 1173 Benjamin of Tudela found 400 Jews there, among whom were the noted...
RUSTCHUK – City of Bulgaria, on the southern bank of the Danube. It was founded by the Russians in 968, was occupied in turn by the Greeks and the Bulgarians, and was finally captured by the Turks under Bayazid I. in 1389. Jews are known...
SAFED – City of Upper Galilee (it has no connection with the Zephath of Judges i. 17). Its foundation dates from the second century of the common era (Yer. R. H. 58a). There is no further mention of the town for many centuries. In 1289...
SAMBARI (CATTAWI?), JOSEPH BEN ISAAC – Egyptian chronicler of the seventeenth century; lived probably at Alexandria between 1640 and 1703. Of lowly origin and in the employ of Rabbi Joseph Ḥen, he spent his leisure time in historic studies, finding a mass of...
SANCHO – Family name of frequent occurrence among Oriental Spanish Jews, and borne by several writers.Abraham ben Ephraim Sancho: Turkish physician and Hebrew poet; lived at Constantinople in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Sancho...
SANCHO – Family name of frequent occurrence among Oriental Spanish Jews, and borne by several writers.Abraham ben Ephraim Sancho: Turkish physician and Hebrew poet; lived at Constantinople in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Sancho...
SCHATZ, BORIS – Russian sculptor; born in 1866, in the government of Kovno. He was the son of a poor schoolmaster ("melammed"). He studied first at the Wilna School of Design, then at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, and finally at Paris,...
SEDBON, JOSEPH – Rabbinical and cabalistic author of Tunis in the second half of the eighteenth century. He composed a cabalistic treatise entitled "Ahabat Adonai," designed as a commentary on the "Idra Ẓuṭa." This work, although written in...
SERVIA – Kingdom of southeastern Europe; until 1876 a vassal state of Turkey. The history of the Jews of the country is almost identical with that of Belgrade and of Nish, its two oldest communities. There was no regularly organized...
SFEJ, ABRAHAM – Rabbinical author; born at Tunis in the early part of the eighteenth century; died at Amsterdam in 1784, while discharging the duties of collecting rabbi for the community of Jerusalem. Sfej left his native city and settled in...
SHEFAR'AM – Place in Palestine, three hours distant from Haifa, governed by a mudir. In the second century it served as a refuge for the Sanhedrin (see Usha). Nothing is known of the early history of its Jewish community, which was probably...
SHUMLA – City of Bulgaria. According to local tradition there was not a Jew at Shumla until about 1780; but in that year a pasha of Adrianople, having been appointed military governor of the city, brought with his regiment a Jewish...
SID, SIDI – Common family name among Eastern Jews, borne by several rabbinical authors.Abraham Moses Sid: Servian rabbinical author; born at Nish 1842; died there 1876. He wrote many works, of which the only ones printed are the following:...