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Max L. Margolis, Ph.D.

Professor of Biblical Exegesis, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
AARON OF PESARO – Flourished in the sixteenth century at Pesaro, Italy, and wrote "Toledot Aharon" (The Generations of Aaron), an index to Scriptural quotations in the Talmud, arranged in the order of the Bible. This was first printed at Freiburg...
ABBREVIATIONS – Terminology. The oldest term for abbreviation, = νοταρικόν, is found in tannaitic literature as early as 150 B.C. (Krauss, "Lehnwörter," ii. s.v.; Bacher, "Die Älteste Terminologie"). Authorities of the third century use also...
ABIOB, AARON – Author of "Shemen ha-Mor" (Oil of Myrrh), a commentary on the Book of Esther. He flourished in Salonica about 1540, and his work was first printed there in 1601. M. L. M.
ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF OSTROG (Volhynia) – Commentator; flourished about 1500. He wrote ("Furnace for Gold"), a commentary on the Targumim to the Pentateuch. Some also attribute to him a treatise on the thirteen hermeneutical rules of Rabbi Ishmael, published at...
ACCENTS IN HEBREW – Symbols denoting vocal stresses on particular syllables in pronouncing words or sentences. 1. In every word we utter, one syllable is spoken with greater emphasis and clearer enunciation than the rest. About it, as the strongly...
AGRARIAN LAWS – Fixed Tenure of Land. With the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan, and the consequent transition from their former nomadic mode of life to agricultural conditions, fixed tenure of landed property became a natural...
ANGEL, MEIR BEN ABRAHAM, of Belgrade – A renowned preacher who lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and died in Safed (Palestine) after having traveled through Poland, Italy, and Greece. He wrote "Masoret ha-Berit" (Tradition of the Covenant), 700...
AREPOL, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC BEN YOM-ṬOB – Commentator on the Bible, lived in Safed and Salonica in the sixteenth century. He is author of the following books: "Imrot Eloah" (God's Sayings), homilies on the Pentateuch (Venice); "Wa'ad la-Ḥakamim" (The Assembly of the...
ARROYO, ISAAC BEN MOSES – Lived in Salonica toward the end of the sixteenth century. He wrote "Maḳhil Ḳohelet" (The Preacher Preaching) and "TanḦumot El" (Consolations of God), philosophical expositions of Ecclesiastes and the Pentateuch (Salonica, 1597,...
ASHKENAZ – The Ruins of Ashkelon.(After a photograph.)( ): A people traced back (Gen. x. 3; I Chron. i. 6) through Gomer to Noah's third son, Japheth. In Jer. li. 27, 28, it is mentioned in connection with the kingdoms of Ararat and Minni...
ATONEMENT, DAY OF – Biblical Data. — In Bible, Talmud, and Liturgy: The term , "Yom Kippur," is late rabbinic. The Biblical laws relating to it are found in Lev. xvi. (ceremonies); ib. xxiii. 26-32 (list of holidays); ib. xxv. 9 (ushering in the...
BOOK OF LIFE – Traditional View: The book, or muster-roll, of God in which all the worthy are recorded for life. God has such a book, and to be blotted out of it signifies death (Ex. xxxii. 32, 33).It is with reference to the Book of Life that...
CELIBACY – Deliberate renunciation of marriage. In the Old Testament there is no direct reference to the subject. The prophet Jeremiah was a celibate (Jer. xvi. 2). He seems to have regarded it as futile to beget offspring doomed to death...
VERSE-DIVISION – Chapter-Divisions Christian. The system of breaking up the Biblical text into verses may seem, both in the original and in the versions, to go hand in hand with its division into chapters. In truth, however, the chapter-division...